UpToDate
Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2015 UpToDate®

Evaluation of foot and ankle pain in the child or adolescent athlete

Authors
Joseph Chorley, MD
Christopher R Powers, MD
Section Editors
Albert C Hergenroeder, MD
Richard G Bachur, MD
Deputy Editor
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH

INTRODUCTION

Approximately 20 percent of all musculoskeletal complaints are related to the foot and ankle, which is not surprising if one considers the functions of the foot:

It provides a stable base on which the body can stand.

It acts as a rigid lever to propel the body forward during walking.

It provides shock absorption for the force generated during walking and running (approximately two to six times an individual's body weight).

The diagnosis and treatment of foot and ankle injuries in the young athlete require knowledge of anatomy, gait, and biomechanics. These topics and the general evaluation of foot and ankle injuries in the young athlete are reviewed here.

                             

Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Jun 2015. | This topic last updated: Dec 11, 2012.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2015 UpToDate, Inc.
References
Top
  1. Moore, KL. Clinically Oriented Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle, 3rd, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 1992.
  2. Noordin, M, Frankel, V. Basic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System, 2nd, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia 1989.
  3. Reid, DC. Sports Injury Assessment and Rehabilitation, Churchill Livingstone, New York 1992.
  4. Techdijan, MO. Clinical Pediatric Orthopedics, Appleton and Lange, Stamford 1997.
  5. Anderson, AC. Injury - Ankle. In: Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 5th, Fleisher, GR, Ludgwig, S, Henretig, FM (Eds), Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia 2006. p.363.
  6. Staheli, LT. Foot. In: Fundamentals of Pediatric Orthopedics, 2nd, Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia 1998. p.41.