Evaluation of carotid artery stenosis
- Karen L Furie, MD, MPH
Karen L Furie, MD, MPH
- Chair and Professor of Neurology
- Alpert Medical School of Brown University
- Section Editors
- Scott E Kasner, MD
Scott E Kasner, MD
- Section Editor — Stroke
- Professor of Neurology
- University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
- John F Eidt, MD
John F Eidt, MD
- Section Editor — Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
- Professor of Surgery, Texas A&M Health Science Center
- Vice Chair of Vascular Surgical Services, Baylor Heart and Vascular Hospital at Dallas
- Joseph L Mills, Sr, MD
Joseph L Mills, Sr, MD
- Section Editor — Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
- Professor and Chief
- Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy
- Baylor College of Medicine
Computed tomographic (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful for evaluating the question of cerebral infarction which may result from carotid artery stenosis. Infarctions related to internal carotid artery stenosis may be deep, subcortical, or cortical. However, carotid stenosis may exist in the absence of infarction on MRI and CT.
The definition of asymptomatic or symptomatic carotid artery stenosis is based upon the history and physical examination, depending upon whether or not there are symptoms or signs of carotid territory ischemia. In the large clinical trials addressing the management of carotid artery stenosis, the detection of "silent" infarcts on CT or MRI did not qualify the stenosis as symptomatic. In clinical practice, however, radiographic evidence of ischemia in the territory of a stenotic internal carotid artery may affect management.
Four diagnostic modalities are used to directly image the internal carotid artery:
●Carotid duplex ultrasound
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- STENOSIS MEASUREMENT
- CONVENTIONAL CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY
- CAROTID DUPLEX ULTRASOUND
- TRANSCRANIAL DOPPLER
- ADDITIONAL ULTRASOUND MODALITIES
- Contrast enhanced ultrasound
- 3D ultrasound
- Compound ultrasound
- MR ANGIOGRAPHY
- CT ANGIOGRAPHY
- DIAGNOSIS OF COMPLETE OCCLUSION
- CHOICE OF IMAGING TEST
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS