Evaluation and diagnosis of hypertension in infants between one month and one year of age
- Tej K Mattoo, MD, DCH, FRCP
Tej K Mattoo, MD, DCH, FRCP
- Section Editor — Pediatric Nephrology
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Wayne State University School of Medicine
The diagnosis of hypertension is typically made by comparing blood pressure (BP) with normative BP values. However, it is challenging to make the diagnosis of hypertension in infants because of the lack of robust normative data and because BP is not routinely measured in healthy infants.
The definition of hypertension based on available data, risk factors, and etiology for hypertension in infants between one month and one year of age will be reviewed here. The etiology and risk factors of hypertension in neonates and older children, and the management of hypertension in infants are discussed separately. (See "Etiology, clinical features, and diagnosis of neonatal hypertension" and "Epidemiology, risk factors, and etiology of hypertension in children and adolescents".)
As in older children, the definition of hypertension in infants is based upon blood pressure (BP) percentiles. The systolic and diastolic BPs are of equal importance in determining the following BP categories (see "Definition and diagnosis of hypertension in children and adolescents"):
●Normal BP – Both systolic and diastolic BP <90th percentile.
●Prehypertension – Systolic and/or diastolic BP ≥90th percentile but <95th percentile.
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