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Etiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome in children

Patrick Niaudet, MD
Section Editor
Tej K Mattoo, MD, DCH, FRCP
Deputy Editor
Melanie S Kim, MD


The nephrotic syndrome is caused by renal diseases that increase the permeability across the glomerular filtration barrier. It is classically characterized by four clinical features, but the first two are used diagnostically because the last two may not be seen in all patients:

Nephrotic range proteinuria − Urinary protein excretion greater than 50 mg/kg per day

Hypoalbuminemia − Serum albumin concentration less than 3 g/dL (30 g/L)



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Literature review current through: Oct 2017. | This topic last updated: Sep 07, 2016.
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