Etiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome in children
- Patrick Niaudet, MD
Patrick Niaudet, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Nephrology
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France
The nephrotic syndrome is caused by renal diseases that increase the permeability across the glomerular filtration barrier. It is classically characterized by four clinical features, but the first two are used diagnostically because the last two may not be seen in all patients:
●Nephrotic range proteinuria − Urinary protein excretion greater than 50 mg/kg per day
●Hypoalbuminemia − Serum albumin concentration less than 3 g/dL (30 g/L)
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- Mechanisms of glomerular injury
- Mechanisms of proteinuria
- CLASSIFICATION AND ETIOLOGY
- Primary nephrotic syndrome
- - Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome
- Secondary nephrotic syndrome
- CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
- Nephrotic syndrome
- - Urine tests
- Urine protein excretion
- - Blood tests
- Serum proteins
- Renal function studies
- Other studies
- Minimal change disease
- - Initial therapy versus biopsy
- DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS