Medline ® Abstract for Reference 7
of 'Etiology and diagnosis of distal (type 1) and proximal (type 2) renal tubular acidosis'
Nephrolithiasis in renal tubular acidosis.
Buckalew VM Jr
J Urol. 1989;141(3 Pt 2):731.
Renal tubular acidosis is a term applied to several conditions in which metabolic acidosis is caused by specific defects in renal tubular hydrogen ion secretion. Three types of renal tubular acidosis generally are recognized based on the nature of the tubular defect. Nephrolithiasis occurs only in type I renal tubular acidosis, a condition marked by an abnormality in the generation and maintenance of a hydrogen ion gradient by the distal tubule. A forme fruste of type I renal tubular acidosis has been described in which the characteristic defect in distal hydrogen ion secretion occurs in the absence of metabolic acidosis (incomplete renal tubular acidosis). Type I renal tubular acidosis is a heterogeneous disorder that may be hereditary, idiopathic or secondary to a variety of conditions. Secondary type I renal tubular acidosis in sporadic cases is associated most commonly with autoimmune diseases, such as Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus, and it occurs more frequently in women than men. Nephrolithiasis, which may occur in any of the subsets of type I renal tubular acidosis, accounts for most of the morbidity in adults and adolescents. Major risk factors for nephrolithiasis include alkaline urine, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia. In addition, we found hyperuricosuria in 21 per cent of the patients with type I renal tubular acidosis with nephrolithiasis. The most frequently occurring risk factor, hypocitraturia, is due to decreased filtered load and/or to increased tubular reabsorption of filtered citrate. While increased tubular reabsorption may be due to systemic acidosis, hypocitraturia occurs in incomplete renal tubular acidosis. Furthermore, alkali therapy (either bicarbonate or citrate salts) increases citrate excretion in complete and incomplete type I renal tubular acidosis. These data suggest that hypocitraturia in type I renal tubular acidosis may be due to a defect in proximal tubule function. Hypercalciuria appears to have 2 causes. It may be due to metabolic acidosis, usually in children with a hereditary defect in urine acidification. In other cases familial idiopathic hypercalciuria causes nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis resulting in distal tubular damage and type I renal tubular acidosis. In these latter cases hypercalciuria is present in complete and incomplete type I renal tubular acidosis. Potassium citrate appears to reduce calcium excretion in both types of hypercalciuric type I renal tubular acidosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Department of Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.