Medline ® Abstract for Reference 23
of 'Etiology and diagnosis of distal (type 1) and proximal (type 2) renal tubular acidosis'
A prospective evaluation of ifosfamide-related nephrotoxicity in children and young adults.
Ho PT, Zimmerman K, Wexler LH, Blaney S, Jarosinski P, Weaver-McClure L, Izraeli S, Balis FM
BACKGROUND: Ifosfamide has been associated with proximal renal tubular dysfunction resembling Fanconi-like syndrome and leading to rickets in young children. The characteristic manifestations of this nephrotoxicity include phosphaturia and hypophosphatemia, glycosuria, aminoaciduria, renal tubular acidosis, and urinary loss of low molecular weight serum proteins. However, the relationship between acute ifosfamide nephrotoxicity, which is frequently subclinical, and long term renal damage is unclear. In this prospective study, the laboratory features of ifosfamide-induced acute nephrotoxicity were characterized further and correlated with the development of chronic nephropathy.
METHODS: The renal function of newly diagnosed children and young adults with high risk sarcomas was followed during therapy with a high dose ifosfamide-containing regimen. Serum and urine were collected regularly immediately before and after 5-day cycles of ifosfamide throughout treatment for determination of the fractional excretion of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, phosphate, magnesium, calcium) and glucose and urinary excretion of amino acids and beta 2-microglobulin.
RESULTS: Significant changes in the renal threshold of phosphate excretion, the fractional excretion of calcium and glucose, and the urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin were observed when comparing pretreatment values with those at the end of a 5-day treatment cycle. The median renal threshold of phosphate excretion decreased from 1.22 to 0.82 mmol/L (P<0.0001). The median fractional excretions of calcium and glucose increased from 1.05% to 1.68% (P<0.0001) and 0.05% to 0.08% (P = 0.0006), respectively. Beta 2-microglobulin excretion increased by 70-fold from 0.02 to 1.42 mg/mmol (P<0.0001). Except for glucose and beta 2-microglobulin excretion, renal parameters returned to baseline before the next ifosfamide treatment cycle. Acute aminoaciduria was observed in 21 of 23 patients. Chronic nephrotoxicity, as defined by the development of a Fanconi-like syndrome or chronic tubular electrolyte loss requiring oral supplementation, developed in the three patients with the highest urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin after ifosfamide therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Prospectively, high dose ifosfamide was associated with a 4% incidence of Fanconi-like syndrome; however, evidence of acute reversible subclinical nephrotoxicity was observed for all patients. Severe beta 2-microglobulinuria appeared to be a prognostic laboratory indicator for the development of chronic nephrotoxicity.
Pediatric Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.