Etiology and clinical manifestations of transient ischemic attack
- Karen L Furie, MD, MPH
Karen L Furie, MD, MPH
- Chair and Professor of Neurology
- Alpert Medical School of Brown University
- Hakan Ay, MD
Hakan Ay, MD
- Stroke Service, Department of Neurology
- A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology
- Massachusetts General Hospital
- Harvard Medical School
Cerebrovascular disease is the third leading cause of death in developed countries after heart disease and cancer; the overall prevalence is 794 per 100,000. It is estimated that more than 700,000 patients have a stroke each year in the United States. The loss of these patients from the work force and the extended hospitalization they require during recovery make the economic impact of the disease one of the most devastating in medicine.
Cerebrovascular disease is caused by one of several pathophysiologic processes involving the blood vessels of the brain:
●The process may be intrinsic to the vessel, as in atherosclerosis, lipohyalinosis, inflammation, amyloid deposition, arterial dissection, developmental malformation, aneurysmal dilation, or venous thrombosis.
●The process may originate remotely, as occurs when an embolus from the heart or extracranial circulation lodges in an intracranial vessel.
●The process may result from inadequate cerebral blood flow due to decreased perfusion pressure or increased blood viscosity.
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- PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC MECHANISMS
- Large artery low flow TIA
- Embolic TIA
- Lacunar TIA
- CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
- Low-flow TIA
- Embolic TIA
- Lacunar or small vessel TIA
- IMPORTANT PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES
- Internal carotid artery TIA
- Intracranial atherothrombotic disease
- Arterial, aortic, or cardiac sources of emboli
- Dissection lesions
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS