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Etiology and clinical manifestations of renal tubular acidosis in infants and children

Tej K Mattoo, MD, DCH, FRCP
Section Editor
F Bruder Stapleton, MD
Deputy Editor
Melanie S Kim, MD


In children, renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is due to either an inherited or acquired defect that affects the kidney's ability to absorb filtered bicarbonate, or excrete ammonia or titratable acid. RTA is characterized by a normal anion gap (hyperchloremic) metabolic acidosis caused by the net retention of hydrogen or loss of bicarbonate.

There are four subgroups of RTA (table 1):

Distal (type 1) RTA

Proximal (type 2) RTA

Mixed (type 3) RTA

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Literature review current through: Dec 2017. | This topic last updated: Jun 02, 2017.
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