Medline ® Abstract for Reference 70
of 'Etiology and clinical features of bladder dysfunction in children'
A survey of voiding dysfunction in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.
Duel BP, Steinberg-Epstein R, Hill M, Lerner M
J Urol. 2003;170(4 Pt 2):1521.
PURPOSE: Physicians treating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have long had the clinical impression that these children suffer disproportionately from voiding dysfunction and incontinence. However, no data exist to confirm this suspicion. In an attempt to investigate this clinical finding, we administered a survey asking about any functional bladder symptoms to a group of children with ADHD and a control group without ADHD.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Survey (DVSS) was administered to a group of children being treated for rigorously diagnosed ADHD and a control group without ADHD. The DVSS consists of 10 questions that assess daytime incontinence, nocturnal enuresis, constipation, urgency, voiding frequency and dysuria, each scored from 0 to 4 (0-never, 1-almost never, 2-less than half the time, 3-about half the time, 4-almost every time) for a maximum total score of 40 (severest symptoms). Scores for patients and controls were compared for each question and in aggregate. Boys and girls underwent separate statistical analysis. An additional eleventh question assesses recent stressful events within the family.
RESULTS: The patient group included 23 boys and 5 girls, and the control group 10 boys and 12 girls. Children with ADHD of both sexes had statistically significant higher overall DVSS scores. Boys had significant differences on several questions. Due to the small number of girls, there were no statistically significant differences on individual questions.
CONCLUSIONS: Children with ADHD have significantly higher rates of incontinence, constipation, urgency, infrequent voiding, nocturnal enuresis and dysuria than those without ADHD. Further study is needed to discern the cause of this difference and develop appropriate treatment strategies.
Antoci Center for Pediatric Urology and Nephrology, UC Irvine Medical Center, University of California, Irvine, Orange, 92868, USA.