Medline ® Abstract for Reference 55
of 'Etiology and clinical features of bladder dysfunction in children'
Non-neurogenic bladder and chronic renal insufficiency in childhood.
Varlam DE, Dippell J
Pediatr Nephrol. 1995;9(1):1.
Functional voiding disorders and urinary tract infections are common in childhood, but are usually not accompanied by upper urinary tract deterioration. Nevertheless a small group of children remain at risk of developing chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Clinically these children present day and night wetting. The most important parameter, however, is urinary retention which is reflected by an abnormal voiding pattern in the uroflow curve. After ruling out patients with neurogenic or anatomical disorders, nine girls with psychogenic urine retention were observed for 5 years. Terminal renal insufficiency was seen in one, CRI in five patients and in three patients the kidney function could be maintained, but they all had severe scarring of at least one kidney. Furthermore, all revealed a dilation of the bladder and the upper urinary tract. Vesicoureteral reflux occurred in six and obstruction of the ureterovesical junction in three patients. Two girls underwent repeated reflux surgery resulting in a rapid deterioration of renal function. Three patients developed hypertension and one had a hypertensive crisis with microangiopathic anaemia and acute renal failure. Psychogenic disorders and problematic family settings were observed in all cases. Bladder training, transitory suprapubic catheters, intermittent catheterisation, medication and psychotherapy can avoid severe kidney damage and achieve a stabilisation of renal function. It is important to bear this syndrome in mind when evaluating girls with asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary retention.
Clementine Children's Hospital, Frankfurt/M, Germany.