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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 14

of 'Etiology and clinical features of bladder dysfunction in children'

Toilet habits and continence in children: an opportunity sampling in search of normal parameters.
Bloom DA, Seeley WW, Ritchey ML, McGuire EJ
J Urol. 1993;149(5):1087.
An opportunity sampling of 1,192 children regarding parameters of toilet training and elimination status was obtained by interview and questionnaire. Toilet training ages ranged from 0.75 to 5 years, with a mean of 2.4 +/- 0.6 years (standard deviation). Voiding frequency was inversely related to age; most children between 3 and 12 years old urinated 5 to 6 times per day. Influences of gender, urinary infections and parental recall were investigated. Nocturnal and diurnal enuresis was reported in 18% and 10% of our sample, respectively. Bowel movements per week ranged from 1 to 21, with a mean of 6.8 +/- 2.5.
Department of Surgery/Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.