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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 12

of 'Etiology and clinical features of bladder dysfunction in children'

Four-hour voiding observation in healthy infants.
Holmdahl G, Hanson E, Hanson M, Hellström AL, Hjälmås K, Sillén U
J Urol. 1996;156(5):1809.
PURPOSE: We present the 4-hour voiding observation as a method for basic assessment of bladder function in infants and nontoilet trained children.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Voiding pattern, including number of voidings, voided volume, bladder capacity and residual urine for 4 hours, was determined noninvasively in 43 healthy infants.
RESULTS: The infants voided an average of 1 time per hour but with great variability. Bladder capacity increased with age according to the formula, 38 + 2.5 x age (months). Mean residual urine plus or minus standard deviation was 4.6 +/- 3.0 ml. In all infants residual volume was less than 5 ml. at least once during observation.
CONCLUSIONS: The 4-hour voiding observation is an easy noninvasive method of characterizing the voiding pattern, focusing especially on emptying difficulties, in infants and nontoilet trained children.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.