Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in adults
- Vance G Fowler, Jr, MD
Vance G Fowler, Jr, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- Duke University Medical Center
- Daniel J Sexton, MD
Daniel J Sexton, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Infectious Diseases
- Section Editor — Bacterial Infections
- Professor of Medicine
- Duke University Medical Center
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of community-acquired and healthcare-associated bacteremia. The annual incidence of S. aureus bacteremia in the United States is 4 to 38 per 100,000 person-years (table 1) . The 30-day all-cause mortality of S. aureus bacteremia is 20 percent [2,3].
The epidemiology of and risk factors for S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) in adults will be reviewed here. The treatment of SAB is discussed separately. (See "Clinical approach to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in adults".)
Bacteremia due to S. aureus can be classified into three categories :
●Healthcare associated, hospital onset (ie, nosocomial)
●Healthcare associated, community onset
- Holland TL, Arnold C, Fowler VG Jr. Clinical management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a review. JAMA 2014; 312:1330.
- van Hal SJ, Jensen SO, Vaska VL, et al. Predictors of mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia. Clin Microbiol Rev 2012; 25:362.
- Anantha RV, Jegatheswaran J, Pepe DL, et al. Risk factors for mortality among patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a single-centre retrospective cohort study. CMAJ Open 2014; 2:E352.
- Friedman ND, Kaye KS, Stout JE, et al. Health care--associated bloodstream infections in adults: a reason to change the accepted definition of community-acquired infections. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137:791.
- Mejer N, Westh H, Schønheyder HC, et al. Stable incidence and continued improvement in short term mortality of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia between 1995 and 2008. BMC Infect Dis 2012; 12:260.
- Sievert DM, Ricks P, Edwards JR, et al. Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: summary of data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009-2010. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013; 34:1.
- Wisplinghoff H, Bischoff T, Tallent SM, et al. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39:309.
- Jensen AG, Wachmann CH, Poulsen KB, et al. Risk factors for hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159:1437.
- Musher DM, Lamm N, Darouiche RO, et al. The current spectrum of Staphylococcus aureus infection in a tertiary care hospital. Medicine (Baltimore) 1994; 73:186.
- Lautenschlager S, Herzog C, Zimmerli W. Course and outcome of bacteremia due to Staphylococcus aureus: evaluation of different clinical case definitions. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 16:567.
- Raad II, Sabbagh MF. Optimal duration of therapy for catheter-related Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a study of 55 cases and review. Clin Infect Dis 1992; 14:75.
- Abramson MA, Sexton DJ. Nosocomial methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus primary bacteremia: at what costs? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999; 20:408.
- Steinberg JP, Clark CC, Hackman BO. Nosocomial and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremias from 1980 to 1993: impact of intravascular devices and methicillin resistance. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23:255.
- Morin CA, Hadler JL. Population-based incidence and characteristics of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus infections with bacteremia in 4 metropolitan Connecticut areas, 1998. J Infect Dis 2001; 184:1029.
- David MZ, Daum RS, Bayer AS, et al. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia at 5 US academic medical centers, 2008-2011: significant geographic variation in community-onset infections. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 59:798.
- Landrum ML, Neumann C, Cook C, et al. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus blood and skin and soft tissue infections in the US military health system, 2005-2010. JAMA 2012; 308:50.
- Willcox PA, Rayner BL, Whitelaw DA. Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in patients who do not abuse intravenous drugs. QJM 1998; 91:41.
- Chang FY, MacDonald BB, Peacock JE Jr, et al. A prospective multicenter study of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: incidence of endocarditis, risk factors for mortality, and clinical impact of methicillin resistance. Medicine (Baltimore) 2003; 82:322.
- Burton DC, Edwards JR, Horan TC, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus central line-associated bloodstream infections in US intensive care units, 1997-2007. JAMA 2009; 301:727.
- Rolo J, Miragaia M, Turlej-Rogacka A, et al. High genetic diversity among community-associated Staphylococcus aureus in Europe: results from a multicenter study. PLoS One 2012; 7:e34768.
- Fowler VG Jr, Boucher HW, Corey GR, et al. Daptomycin versus standard therapy for bacteremia and endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:653.
- Moise PA, Smyth DS, El-Fawal N, et al. Microbiological effects of prior vancomycin use in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008; 61:85.
- Rose WE, Rybak MJ, Kaatz GW. Evaluation of daptomycin treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial endocarditis: an in vitro and in vivo simulation using historical and current dosing strategies. J Antimicrob Chemother 2007; 60:334.
- Kaasch AJ, Barlow G, Edgeworth JD, et al. Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: a pooled analysis of five prospective, observational studies. J Infect 2014; 68:242.
- Chambers HF, Korzeniowski OM, Sande MA. Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis: clinical manifestations in addicts and nonaddicts. Medicine (Baltimore) 1983; 62:170.
- Hecht SR, Berger M. Right-sided endocarditis in intravenous drug users. Prognostic features in 102 episodes. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117:560.
- Maradona JA, Carton JA, López-Alonso J, et al. Comparative study of community versus hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. Eur J Med 1992; 1:113.
- Berman DS, Schaefler S, Simberkoff MS, Rahal JJ. Staphylococcus aureus colonization in intravenous drug abusers, dialysis patients, and diabetics. J Infect Dis 1987; 155:829.
- Craven DE, Rixinger AI, Goularte TA, McCabe WR. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia linked to intravenous drug abusers using a "shooting gallery". Am J Med 1986; 80:770.
- Tuazon CU, Sheagren JN. Increased rate of carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among narcotic addicts. J Infect Dis 1974; 129:725.
- Quagliarello B, Cespedes C, Miller M, et al. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from drug-use networks are closely linked. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35:671.
- Moreillon P, Que YA, Glauser MP. Staphylococcus aureus (including staphylococcal toxic shock). In: Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed, Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (Eds), Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia 2005. p.2321.
- Jacobsson G, Dashti S, Wahlberg T, Andersson R. The epidemiology of and risk factors for invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections in western Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis 2007; 39:6.
- Yu VL, Goetz A, Wagener M, et al. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection in patients on hemodialysis. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis. N Engl J Med 1986; 315:91.
- Kirmani N, Tuazon CU, Murray HW, et al. Staphylococcus aureus carriage rate of patients receiving long-term hemodialysis. Arch Intern Med 1978; 138:1657.
- Wertheim HF, Vos MC, Ott A, et al. Risk and outcome of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in nasal carriers versus non-carriers. Lancet 2004; 364:703.
- Holtfreter S, Roschack K, Eichler P, et al. Staphylococcus aureus carriers neutralize superantigens by antibodies specific for their colonizing strain: a potential explanation for their improved prognosis in severe sepsis. J Infect Dis 2006; 193:1275.
- Wiese L, Mejer N, Schønheyder HC, et al. A nationwide study of comorbidity and risk of reinfection after Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. J Infect 2013; 67:199.