Epidemiology of pediatric HIV infection
- Susan L Gillespie, MD, PhD
Susan L Gillespie, MD, PhD
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
Considerable progress has been made towards eliminating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among children; however, the global burden of pediatric HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains a challenge for healthcare workers around the world, particularly in developing countries.
The epidemiology of HIV infection in children will be discussed here. The case definition, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of pediatric HIV, prophylactic treatment of infants born to HIV-infected mothers, diagnostic testing for HIV in young children, the approach to febrile HIV-infected infants and children, and issues related to HIV infection in adolescents are discussed separately:
- UNAIDS Gap Report 2014. Available at: www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/name,97466,en.asp (Accessed on September 15, 2014).
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2013; vol. 25. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/g-l/hiv_surveillance_report_vol_25.pdf (Accessed on September 23, 2015).
- Nesheim S, Taylor A, Lampe MA, et al. A framework for elimination of perinatal transmission of HIV in the United States. Pediatrics 2012; 130:738.
- Whitmore SK, Taylor AW, Espinoza L, et al. Correlates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in the United States and Puerto Rico. Pediatrics 2012; 129:e74.
- Bamford A, Lyall H. Paediatric HIV grows up: recent advances in perinatally acquired HIV. Arch Dis Child 2015; 100:183.
- CDC: Perinatal HIV Transmission 2007: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/perinatal/overview_partner.htm (Accessed on April 25, 2011).
- UNAIDS: 2012 report on the global AIDS epidemic 2012. Available here: www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2012/gr2012/20121120_UNAIDS_Global_Report_2012_en.pdf (Accessed on February 19, 2013).
- WHO: Towards Universal Access: Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector. Progress Report 2010: www.who.int/hiv/pub/2010progressreport (Accessed on April 11, 2011).
- WHO: Antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infections in infants: recommendations for a public health approach, 2010 version: www.who.int/hiv/pub/mtct/antiretroviral2010/en/index.html (Accessed on April 11, 2011).
- Fowler MG, Lampe MA, Jamieson DJ, et al. Reducing the risk of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission: past successes, current progress and challenges, and future directions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197:S3.
- Pizzo PA, Wilfert CM. diatric AIDS: The Challenge of HIV Infection in Infants, Children, and Adolescents, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore 1998.
- GLOBAL HIV/AIDS STATISTICS
- Developed countries
- Developing countries
- RISK FACTORS FOR HIV ACQUISITION
- Exposure through sexual contact
- Exposure through blood or blood products
- Exposure through injection drug use
- Exposure through pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding
- PROGRESS IN PROVIDING PEDIATRIC TREATMENT
- SOCIETY GUIDELINE LINKS