UpToDate
Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2016 UpToDate®

Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections

Author
Joel M Palefsky, MD
Section Editor
Martin S Hirsch, MD
Deputy Editor
Allyson Bloom, MD

INTRODUCTION

Papillomaviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that constitute the Papillomavirus genus of the Papillomaviridae family. These viruses are highly species specific; human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect only humans. There are more than 100 types of HPV, which can be subdivided into cutaneous or mucosal categories based upon their tissue tropism.

The epidemiology and disease associations of HPV infections will be reviewed here. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these infections and their association with malignancy are discussed separately. (See "Virology of human papillomavirus infections and the link to cancer" and "Recommendations for the use of human papillomavirus vaccines".)

TISSUE TROPISM

Different human papillomavirus (HPV) types have a propensity to infect different body sites (table 1).

Cutaneous — Certain HPV types have a predilection for cutaneous epithelium and are found in plantar warts, common warts, flat warts, and butcher's warts [1]. HPV types associated with plantar and common warts include type 1 and types 2 and 4, respectively. Flat warts are most often caused by HPV types 3 and 10, while butcher's warts (common warts that tend to occur in meat, poultry, and fish handlers) are most often associated with HPV types 7 and 2 [2].

Bowen's disease, a form of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, has both genital and extragenital forms [3]. It can occur on the fingers, toes, palms, feet, and on the genital mucosa. Multiple HPV types have been isolated from these lesions; including HPV types 16, 18, 31, 32, 34, and others [1,3,4].

                          

Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Mon Mar 14 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc.
References
Top
  1. Carr J, Gyorfi T. Human papillomavirus. Epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenesis. Clin Lab Med 2000; 20:235.
  2. Bonnez W, Reichman RC. Papillomaviruses. In: Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Fifth Edition, Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (Eds), Churchill Livingston, Philadelphia 2000. p.1630.
  3. Mackenzie-Wood A, Kossard S, de Launey J, et al. Imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of Bowen's disease. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 44:462.
  4. Franco EL, Duarte-Franco E, Ferenczy A. Cervical cancer: epidemiology, prevention and the role of human papillomavirus infection. CMAJ 2001; 164:1017.
  5. Karrer S, Szeimies RM, Abels C, et al. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis treated using topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy. Br J Dermatol 1999; 140:935.
  6. Beutner KR. Nongenital human papillomavirus infections. Clin Lab Med 2000; 20:423.
  7. von Krogh G, Lacey CJ, Gross G, et al. European course on HPV associated pathology: guidelines for primary care physicians for the diagnosis and management of anogenital warts. Sex Transm Infect 2000; 76:162.
  8. Sedlacek TV. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of human papillomavirus infections. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1999; 42:206.
  9. Thomas DB, Ray RM, Koetsawang A, et al. Human papillomaviruses and cervical cancer in Bangkok. I. Risk factors for invasive cervical carcinomas with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 DNA. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153:723.
  10. Tilston P. Anal human papillomavirus and anal cancer. J Clin Pathol 1997; 50:625.
  11. Castle PE, Schiffman M, Bratti MC, et al. A population-based study of vaginal human papillomavirus infection in hysterectomized women. J Infect Dis 2004; 190:458.
  12. Chaturvedi AK, Madeleine MM, Biggar RJ, Engels EA. Risk of human papillomavirus-associated cancers among persons with AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 101:1120.
  13. Stier EA, Goldstone SE, Einstein MH, et al. Safety and efficacy of topical cidofovir to treat high-grade perianal and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men and women. AIDS 2013; 27:545.
  14. Llewellyn CD, Johnson NW, Warnakulasuriya KA. Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in young people--a comprehensive literature review. Oral Oncol 2001; 37:401.
  15. Uobe K, Masuno K, Fang YR, et al. Detection of HPV in Japanese and Chinese oral carcinomas by in situ PCR. Oral Oncol 2001; 37:146.
  16. Allen AL, Siegfried EC. What's new in human papillomavirus infection. Curr Opin Pediatr 2000; 12:365.
  17. Steele K, Irwin WG, Merrett JD. Warts in general practice. Ir Med J 1989; 82:122.
  18. Koutsky L. Epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection. Am J Med 1997; 102:3.
  19. Kjaer SK, Tran TN, Sparen P, et al. The burden of genital warts: a study of nearly 70,000 women from the general female population in the 4 Nordic countries. J Infect Dis 2007; 196:1447.
  20. Leval A, Herweijer E, Arnheim-Dahlström L, et al. Incidence of genital warts in Sweden before and after quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine availability. J Infect Dis 2012; 206:860.
  21. FUTURE I/II Study Group, Dillner J, Kjaer SK, et al. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2010; 341:c3493.
  22. Anic GM, Lee JH, Villa LL, et al. Risk factors for incident condyloma in a multinational cohort of men: the HIM study. J Infect Dis 2012; 205:789.
  23. Barr E, Tamms G. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45:609.
  24. Insinga RP, Dasbach EJ, Myers ER. The health and economic burden of genital warts in a set of private health plans in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36:1397.
  25. de Martel C, Ferlay J, Franceschi S, et al. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: a review and synthetic analysis. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13:607.
  26. Sonnex C. Human papillomavirus infection with particular reference to genital disease. J Clin Pathol 1998; 51:643.
  27. de Sanjose S, Quint WG, Alemany L, et al. Human papillomavirus genotype attribution in invasive cervical cancer: a retrospective cross-sectional worldwide study. Lancet Oncol 2010; 11:1048.
  28. Muñoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S, et al. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:518.
  29. Thompson DL, Douglas JM Jr, Foster M, et al. Seroepidemiology of infection with human papillomavirus 16, in men and women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States. J Infect Dis 2004; 190:1563.
  30. Jemal A, Simard EP, Dorell C, et al. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus(HPV)-associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels. J Natl Cancer Inst 2013; 105:175.
  31. Hoevenaars BM, van der Avoort IA, de Wilde PC, et al. A panel of p16(INK4A), MIB1 and p53 proteins can distinguish between the 2 pathways leading to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer 2008; 123:2767.
  32. Chaux A, Cubilla AL. The role of human papillomavirus infection in the pathogenesis of penile squamous cell carcinomas. Semin Diagn Pathol 2012; 29:67.
  33. D'Souza G, Kreimer AR, Viscidi R, et al. Case-control study of human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal cancer. N Engl J Med 2007; 356:1944.
  34. Mork J, Lie AK, Glattre E, et al. Human papillomavirus infection as a risk factor for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 2001; 344:1125.
  35. Gillison ML, Broutian T, Pickard RK, et al. Prevalence of oral HPV infection in the United States, 2009-2010. JAMA 2012; 307:693.
  36. Li X, Gao L, Li H, et al. Human papillomavirus infection and laryngeal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect Dis 2013; 207:479.
  37. Gillison ML, D'Souza G, Westra W, et al. Distinct risk factor profiles for human papillomavirus type 16-positive and human papillomavirus type 16-negative head and neck cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008; 100:407.
  38. Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, et al. Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29:4294.
  39. Pickard RK, Xiao W, Broutian TR, et al. The prevalence and incidence of oral human papillomavirus infection among young men and women, aged 18-30 years. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39:559.
  40. Lang Kuhs KA, Gonzalez P, Struijk L, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for oral human papillomavirus among young women in Costa Rica. J Infect Dis 2013; 208:1643.
  41. Steinau M, Hariri S, Gillison ML, et al. Prevalence of cervical and oral human papillomavirus infections among US women. J Infect Dis 2014; 209:1739.
  42. Chaturvedi AK, Graubard BI, Pickard RK, et al. High-risk oral human papillomavirus load in the US population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. J Infect Dis 2014; 210:441.
  43. Fakhry C, Gillison ML, D'Souza G. Tobacco use and oral HPV-16 infection. JAMA 2014; 312:1465.
  44. Kreimer AR, Pierce Campbell CM, Lin HY, et al. Incidence and clearance of oral human papillomavirus infection in men: the HIM cohort study. Lancet 2013; 382:877.
  45. Herrero R, Quint W, Hildesheim A, et al. Reduced prevalence of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) 4 years after bivalent HPV vaccination in a randomized clinical trial in Costa Rica. PLoS One 2013; 8:e68329.
  46. Derkay CS, Wiatrak B. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a review. Laryngoscope 2008; 118:1236.
  47. Yuan H, Myers S, Wang J, et al. Use of reprogrammed cells to identify therapy for respiratory papillomatosis. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:1220.
  48. Ho GY, Bierman R, Beardsley L, et al. Natural history of cervicovaginal papillomavirus infection in young women. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:423.
  49. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin. Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists. Number 61, April 2005. Human papillomavirus. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 105:905.
  50. Tarkowski TA, Koumans EH, Sawyer M, et al. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection and abnormal cytologic test results in an urban adolescent population. J Infect Dis 2004; 189:46.
  51. Winer RL, Lee SK, Hughes JP, et al. Genital human papillomavirus infection: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of female university students. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 157:218.
  52. Peyton CL, Gravitt PE, Hunt WC, et al. Determinants of genital human papillomavirus detection in a US population. J Infect Dis 2001; 183:1554.
  53. Karlsson R, Jonsson M, Edlund K, et al. Lifetime number of partners as the only independent risk factor for human papillomavirus infection: a population-based study. Sex Transm Dis 1995; 22:119.
  54. Moscicki AB, Hills N, Shiboski S, et al. Risks for incident human papillomavirus infection and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion development in young females. JAMA 2001; 285:2995.
  55. Ley C, Bauer HM, Reingold A, et al. Determinants of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991; 83:997.
  56. Houlihan CF, de Sanjosé S, Baisley K, et al. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in adolescent girls before reported sexual debut. J Infect Dis 2014; 210:837.
  57. Smith JS. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in adolescent girls before reported sexual debut. J Infect Dis 2014; 210:835.
  58. Shew ML, Weaver B, Tu W, et al. High frequency of human papillomavirus detection in the vagina before first vaginal intercourse among females enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study. J Infect Dis 2013; 207:1012.
  59. Widdice LE, Breland DJ, Jonte J, et al. Human papillomavirus concordance in heterosexual couples. J Adolesc Health 2010; 47:151.
  60. Nyitray AG, Menezes L, Lu B, et al. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) concordance in heterosexual couples. J Infect Dis 2012; 206:202.
  61. Nyitray AG, Lin HY, Fulp WJ, et al. The role of monogamy and duration of heterosexual relationships in human papillomavirus transmission. J Infect Dis 2014; 209:1007.
  62. Dunne EF, Nielson CM, Stone KM, et al. Prevalence of HPV infection among men: A systematic review of the literature. J Infect Dis 2006; 194:1044.
  63. Castellsagué X, Naud P, Chow SN, et al. Risk of newly detected infections and cervical abnormalities in women seropositive for naturally acquired human papillomavirus type 16/18 antibodies: analysis of the control arm of PATRICIA. J Infect Dis 2014; 210:517.
  64. Safaeian M, Porras C, Schiffman M, et al. Epidemiological study of anti-HPV16/18 seropositivity and subsequent risk of HPV16 and -18 infections. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010; 102:1653.
  65. Wilson L, Pawlita M, Castle PE, et al. Seroprevalence of 8 oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes and acquired immunity against reinfection. J Infect Dis 2014; 210:448.
  66. Carter JJ, Koutsky LA, Hughes JP, et al. Comparison of human papillomavirus types 16, 18, and 6 capsid antibody responses following incident infection. J Infect Dis 2000; 181:1911.
  67. Franceschi S, Baussano I. Naturally acquired immunity against human papillomavirus (HPV): why it matters in the HPV vaccine era. J Infect Dis 2014; 210:507.
  68. Wentzensen N, Rodriguez AC, Viscidi R, et al. A competitive serological assay shows naturally acquired immunity to human papillomavirus infections in the Guanacaste Natural History Study. J Infect Dis 2011; 204:94.
  69. de Sanjosé S, Diaz M, Castellsagué X, et al. Worldwide prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with normal cytology: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7:453.
  70. Wright TC Jr, Schiffman M. Adding a test for human papillomavirus DNA to cervical-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:489.
  71. Goodman MT, Shvetsov YB, McDuffie K, et al. Acquisition of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women: the Hawaii HPV Cohort study. J Infect Dis 2008; 197:957.
  72. Goodman MT, Shvetsov YB, McDuffie K, et al. Sequential acquisition of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the anus and cervix: the Hawaii HPV Cohort Study. J Infect Dis 2010; 201:1331.
  73. Dunne EF, Unger ER, Sternberg M, et al. Prevalence of HPV infection among females in the United States. JAMA 2007; 297:813.
  74. Winer RL, Feng Q, Hughes JP, et al. Risk of female human papillomavirus acquisition associated with first male sex partner. J Infect Dis 2008; 197:279.
  75. Widdice LE, Brown DR, Bernstein DI, et al. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in young women receiving the first quadrivalent vaccine dose. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2012; 166:774.
  76. Markowitz LE, Sternberg M, Dunne EF, et al. Seroprevalence of human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, and 18 in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. J Infect Dis 2009; 200:1059.
  77. Liu G, Markowitz LE, Hariri S, et al. Seroprevalence of 9 Human Papillomavirus Types in the United States, 2005-2006. J Infect Dis 2016; 213:191.
  78. Sycuro LK, Xi LF, Hughes JP, et al. Persistence of genital human papillomavirus infection in a long-term follow-up study of female university students. J Infect Dis 2008; 198:971.
  79. Messersmith AR, Banister CE, Spiryda LB, et al. Increased risk of persistent human papillomavirus infection and abnormal Pap tests in African American compared to European American women in a college-age cohort. Presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Meeting, Chicago, IL, March 31- April 4, 2012. Abstract #550
  80. Hariri S, Unger ER, Powell SE, et al. Human papillomavirus genotypes in high-grade cervical lesions in the United States. J Infect Dis 2012; 206:1878.
  81. Banister CE, Messersmith AR, Cai B, et al. Disparity in the persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes between African American and European American women of college age. J Infect Dis 2015; 211:100.
  82. Gravitt PE, Rositch AF, Silver MI, et al. A cohort effect of the sexual revolution may be masking an increase in human papillomavirus detection at menopause in the United States. J Infect Dis 2013; 207:272.
  83. Rositch AF, Burke AE, Viscidi RP, et al. Contributions of recent and past sexual partnerships on incident human papillomavirus detection: acquisition and reactivation in older women. Cancer Res 2012; 72:6183.
  84. Brown DR, Weaver B. Human papillomavirus in older women: new infection or reactivation? J Infect Dis 2013; 207:211.
  85. Strickler HD, Burk RD, Fazzari M, et al. Natural history and possible reactivation of human papillomavirus in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97:577.
  86. Shvetsov YB, Hernandez BY, McDuffie K, et al. Duration and clearance of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women: the Hawaii HPV cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48:536.
  87. Castro FA, Quint W, Gonzalez P, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection among young healthy women in Costa Rica. J Infect Dis 2012; 206:1103.
  88. Beachler DC, D'Souza G, Sugar EA, et al. Natural history of anal vs oral HPV infection in HIV-infected men and women. J Infect Dis 2013; 208:330.
  89. Palefsky JM, Holly EA, Ralston ML, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women. J Infect Dis 2001; 183:383.
  90. Santoso JT, Long M, Crigger M, et al. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 116:578.
  91. Moscicki AB, Ma Y, Farhat S, et al. Natural history of anal human papillomavirus infection in heterosexual women and risks associated with persistence. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 58:804.
  92. Chiao EY. Duration of anal human papillomavirus infection among immunocompetent women: clues to anal cancer epidemiology and possible prevention strategies. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48:547.
  93. Clifford GM, Gallus S, Herrero R, et al. Worldwide distribution of human papillomavirus types in cytologically normal women in the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV prevalence surveys: a pooled analysis. Lancet 2005; 366:991.
  94. Banura C, Franceschi S, Doorn LJ, et al. Infection with human papillomavirus and HIV among young women in Kampala, Uganda. J Infect Dis 2008; 197:555.
  95. Oakeshott P, Aghaizu A, Reid F, et al. Frequency and risk factors for prevalent, incident, and persistent genital carcinogenic human papillomavirus infection in sexually active women: community based cohort study. BMJ 2012; 344:e4168.
  96. Baldwin SB, Wallace DR, Papenfuss MR, et al. Condom use and other factors affecting penile human papillomavirus detection in men attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Sex Transm Dis 2004; 31:601.
  97. Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, et al. Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med 2002; 346:1105.
  98. Nyitray AG, Carvalho da Silva RJ, Baggio ML, et al. Age-specific prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus (HPV) among men who have sex with women and men who have sex with men: the HPV in men (HIM) study. J Infect Dis 2011; 203:49.
  99. Vardas E, Giuliano AR, Goldstone S, et al. External genital human papillomavirus prevalence and associated factors among heterosexual men on 5 continents. J Infect Dis 2011; 203:58.
  100. Goldstone S, Palefsky JM, Giuliano AR, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men. J Infect Dis 2011; 203:66.
  101. Repp KK, Nielson CM, Fu R, et al. Male human papillomavirus prevalence and association with condom use in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. J Infect Dis 2012; 205:1287.
  102. Machalek DA, Poynten M, Jin F, et al. Anal human papillomavirus infection and associated neoplastic lesions in men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13:487.
  103. Hernandez BY, Shvetsov YB, Goodman MT, et al. Reduced clearance of penile human papillomavirus infection in uncircumcised men. J Infect Dis 2010; 201:1340.
  104. Chin-Hong PV, Vittinghoff E, Cranston RD, et al. Age-Specific prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection in HIV-negative sexually active men who have sex with men: the EXPLORE study. J Infect Dis 2004; 190:2070.
  105. Glick SN, Feng Q, Popov V, et al. High rates of incident and prevalent anal human papillomavirus infection among young men who have sex with men. J Infect Dis 2014; 209:369.
  106. Zou H, Tabrizi SN, Grulich AE, et al. Early acquisition of anogenital human papillomavirus among teenage men who have sex with men. J Infect Dis 2014; 209:642.
  107. Nyitray AG, da Silva RJ, Baggio ML, et al. The prevalence of genital HPV and factors associated with oncogenic HPV among men having sex with men and men having sex with women and men: the HIM study. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38:932.
  108. Giuliano AR, Lee JH, Fulp W, et al. Incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus infection in men (HIM): a cohort study. Lancet 2011; 377:932.
  109. Nielson CM, Harris RB, Dunne EF, et al. Risk factors for anogenital human papillomavirus infection in men. J Infect Dis 2007; 196:1137.
  110. Partridge JM, Hughes JP, Feng Q, et al. Genital human papillomavirus infection in men: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of university students. J Infect Dis 2007; 196:1128.
  111. Giuliano AR, Lu B, Nielson CM, et al. Age-specific prevalence, incidence, and duration of human papillomavirus infections in a cohort of 290 US men. J Infect Dis 2008; 198:827.
  112. Tobian AA, Kigozi G, Gravitt PE, et al. Human papillomavirus incidence and clearance among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS 2012; 26:1555.
  113. Larke N, Thomas SL, Dos Santos Silva I, Weiss HA. Male circumcision and human papillomavirus infection in men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect Dis 2011; 204:1375.
  114. Giuliano AR, Nielson CM, Flores R, et al. The optimal anatomic sites for sampling heterosexual men for human papillomavirus (HPV) detection: the HPV detection in men study. J Infect Dis 2007; 196:1146.
  115. Hernandez BY, Wilkens LR, Zhu X, et al. Circumcision and human papillomavirus infection in men: a site-specific comparison. J Infect Dis 2008; 197:787.
  116. Brotherton JM, Fridman M, May CL, et al. Early effect of the HPV vaccination programme on cervical abnormalities in Victoria, Australia: an ecological study. Lancet 2011; 377:2085.
  117. Tabrizi SN, Brotherton JM, Kaldor JM, et al. Fall in human papillomavirus prevalence following a national vaccination program. J Infect Dis 2012; 206:1645.
  118. Donovan B, Franklin N, Guy R, et al. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination and trends in genital warts in Australia: analysis of national sentinel surveillance data. Lancet Infect Dis 2011; 11:39.
  119. Read TR, Hocking JS, Chen MY, et al. The near disappearance of genital warts in young women 4 years after commencing a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme. Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87:544.
  120. Markowitz LE, Hariri S, Lin C, et al. Reduction in human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among young women following HPV vaccine introduction in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2003-2010. J Infect Dis 2013; 208:385.
  121. Crowe E, Pandeya N, Brotherton JM, et al. Effectiveness of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine for the prevention of cervical abnormalities: case-control study nested within a population based screening programme in Australia. BMJ 2014; 348:g1458.
  122. Baldur-Felskov B, Dehlendorff C, Munk C, Kjaer SK. Early impact of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical neoplasia--nationwide follow-up of young Danish women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2014; 106:djt460.
  123. Smith MA, Liu B, McIntyre P, et al. Fall in genital warts diagnoses in the general and indigenous Australian population following implementation of a national human papillomavirus vaccination program: analysis of routinely collected national hospital data. J Infect Dis 2015; 211:91.
  124. Smith LM, Strumpf EC, Kaufman JS, et al. The early benefits of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical dysplasia and anogenital warts. Pediatrics 2015; 135:e1131.
  125. Drolet M, Bénard É, Boily MC, et al. Population-level impact and herd effects following human papillomavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2015; 15:565.
  126. Markowitz LE, Liu G, Hariri S, et al. Prevalence of HPV After Introduction of the Vaccination Program in the United States. Pediatrics 2016; 137:e20151968.
  127. Hofstetter AM, Ompad DC, Stockwell MS, et al. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Cytology Outcomes Among Urban Low-Income Minority Females. JAMA Pediatr 2016; 170:445.
  128. Garland SM, Kjaer SK, Muñoz N, et al. Impact and Effectiveness of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: A Systematic Review of 10 Years of Real-world Experience. Clin Infect Dis 2016; 63:519.
  129. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescent Girls, 2007–2012, and Postlicensure Vaccine Safety Monitoring, 2006–2013 — United States. MMWR Recomm Rep 2013; 62:591.
  130. Blomberg M, Dehlendorff C, Munk C, Kjaer SK. Strongly decreased risk of genital warts after vaccination against human papillomavirus: nationwide follow-up of vaccinated and unvaccinated girls in Denmark. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57:929.
  131. Bauer HM, Wright G, Chow J. Evidence of human papillomavirus vaccine effectiveness in reducing genital warts: an analysis of California public family planning administrative claims data, 2007-2010. Am J Public Health 2012; 102:833.
  132. Singh DK, Anastos K, Hoover DR, et al. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cytology in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Rwandan women. J Infect Dis 2009; 199:1851.
  133. Mbulawa ZZ, Coetzee D, Marais DJ, et al. Genital human papillomavirus prevalence and human papillomavirus concordance in heterosexual couples are positively associated with human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. J Infect Dis 2009; 199:1514.
  134. Mbulawa ZZ, Marais DJ, Johnson LF, et al. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus on the natural history of human papillomavirus genital infection in South African men and women. J Infect Dis 2012; 206:15.
  135. Blitz S, Baxter J, Raboud J, et al. Evaluation of HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy on the natural history of human papillomavirus infection and cervical cytopathologic findings in HIV-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women. J Infect Dis 2013; 208:454.
  136. Sahasrabuddhe VV, Castle PE, Follansbee S, et al. Human papillomavirus genotype attribution and estimation of preventable fraction of anal intraepithelial neoplasia cases among HIV-infected men who have sex with men. J Infect Dis 2013; 207:392.
  137. Phanuphak N, Teeratakulpisarn N, Pankam T, et al. Anal human papillomavirus infection among Thai men who have sex with men with and without HIV infection: prevalence, incidence, and persistence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2013; 63:472.
  138. Welling CA, Mooij SH, van der Sande MA, et al. Association of HIV Infection With Anal and Penile Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Amsterdam: The HIV & HPV in MSM Study. Sex Transm Dis 2015; 42:297.
  139. Mooij SH, van Santen DK, Geskus RB, et al. The effect of HIV infection on anal and penile human papillomavirus incidence and clearance: a cohort study among MSM. AIDS 2016; 30:121.
  140. Konopnicki D, Manigart Y, Gilles C, et al. Sustained viral suppression and higher CD4+ T-cell count reduces the risk of persistent cervical high-risk human papillomavirus infection in HIV-positive women. J Infect Dis 2013; 207:1723.
  141. van der Snoek EM, van der Ende ME, den Hollander JC, et al. Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with lower prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplastic lesions and lower prevalence of human papillomavirus in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39:495.
  142. Minkoff H, Zhong Y, Burk RD, et al. Influence of adherent and effective antiretroviral therapy use on human papillomavirus infection and squamous intraepithelial lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women. J Infect Dis 2010; 201:681.
  143. Palefsky JM. Antiretroviral therapy and anal cancer: the good, the bad, and the unknown. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39:501.
  144. Lillo FB, Ferrari D, Veglia F, et al. Human papillomavirus infection and associated cervical disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis 2001; 184:547.
  145. Chin-Hong PV, Husnik M, Cranston RD, et al. Anal human papillomavirus infection is associated with HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men. AIDS 2009; 23:1135.
  146. Smith JS, Moses S, Hudgens MG, et al. Increased risk of HIV acquisition among Kenyan men with human papillomavirus infection. J Infect Dis 2010; 201:1677.
  147. Tobian AA, Grabowski MK, Kigozi G, et al. Human papillomavirus clearance among males is associated with HIV acquisition and increased dendritic cell density in the foreskin. J Infect Dis 2013; 207:1713.
  148. Houlihan CF, Larke NL, Watson-Jones D, et al. Human papillomavirus infection and increased risk of HIV acquisition. A systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS 2012; 26:2211.
  149. Averbach SH, Gravitt PE, Nowak RG, et al. The association between cervical human papillomavirus infection and HIV acquisition among women in Zimbabwe. AIDS 2010; 24:1035.