Epidemiology of coronary heart disease
- Peter WF Wilson, MD
Peter WF Wilson, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- Emory University School of Medicine
- Pamela S Douglas, MD
Pamela S Douglas, MD
- Ursula Geller Professor of Research in Cardiovascular Diseases
- Duke University Medical Center
- Section Editors
- Bernard J Gersh, MB, ChB, DPhil, FRCP, MACC
Bernard J Gersh, MB, ChB, DPhil, FRCP, MACC
- Editor-in-Chief — Cardiovascular Medicine
- Section Editor — Coronary Heart Disease; Myopericardial Disease
- Professor of Medicine
- Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
- Patricia A Pellikka, MD, FACC, FAHA, FASE
Patricia A Pellikka, MD, FACC, FAHA, FASE
- Section Editor — Noninvasive Cardiac Imaging and Stress Testing
- Professor of Medicine
- Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
- Juan Carlos Kaski, DSc, MD, DM (Hons), FRCP, FESC, FACC, FAHA
Juan Carlos Kaski, DSc, MD, DM (Hons), FRCP, FESC, FACC, FAHA
- Section Editor — Coronary Heart Disease
- Professor of Cardiovascular Science
- Director, Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Research Institute
- St. George's, University of London
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of death and disability in developed countries. Although CHD mortality rates worldwide have declined over the past four decades, CHD remains responsible for about one-third or more of all deaths in individuals over age 35 [1-3]. It has been estimated that nearly one-half of all middle-aged men and one-third of middle-aged women in the United States will develop some manifestation of CHD .
Population-based epidemiologic data, such as that from the Framingham Heart Study, provide the best assessment of the risk factors that contribute to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) and to the way it evolves, progresses, and terminates because these data are less encumbered by the unavoidable selection bias of clinical trials data. In addition, epidemiologic data provide critical information regarding targets for the primary and secondary prevention of CHD.
This topic will discuss the incidence, prevalence, trend in mortality, and general prognosis of CHD. The discussion of outcomes after myocardial infarction is found elsewhere. (See "Prognosis after myocardial infarction".)
The incidence, prevalence, and prognosis of non-coronary cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as cerebrovascular or peripheral artery disease are discussed elsewhere. (See "Clinical features and diagnosis of lower extremity peripheral artery disease", section on 'Epidemiology and risk factors' and "Etiology, classification, and epidemiology of stroke", section on 'Epidemiology'.)
The terms incidence, prevalence, coronary heart disease, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease, as used in this topic, are defined as follows:
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- SOURCES OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC DATA
- Temporal trends
- International trends
- Myocardial infarction
- - STEMI versus NSTEMI
- CHD MORTALITY
- - Possible explanations
- International data
- SILENT MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA AND INFARCTION
- Unrecognized MI
- - ECG findings
- - Risk factors
- - Prognosis after unrecognized MI
- Angina in men versus women
- Non-obstructive CHD
- Myocardial infarction
- - Non-ST elevation ACS
- SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH
- Impact of sex
- NON-CORONARY CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS