Medline ® Abstracts for References 4,5
of 'Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and pathogenesis of rhinovirus infections'
Winther B, Gwaltney JM Jr, Mygind N, Hendley JO
Am J Rhinol. 1998;12(1):17.
Upper respiratory viruses cause self-limited illness characterized by acute rhinitis. In rhinovirus colds the symptoms are thought to be caused by the host response rather than viral damage of the nasal epithelium. Rhinovirus triggers an inflammatory cascade, evidenced by the presence of inflammatory mediators (e.g., IL-8) and proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., kinins) in nasal secretions, which results in symptomatic illness. In contrast to rhinovirus and coronavirus, which do not cause discernible epithelial damage, influenza virus and adenovirus do damage the nasal epithelium. Appropriate antiviral therapy will depend on the causative virus. Treatment of rhinovirus colds may require an antiviral agent (e.g., interferon alpha) in combination with antiinflammatory medication.
Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville 22908, USA.
Rhinovirus transmission within families with children: incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic infections.
Peltola V, Waris M, Osterback R, Susi P, Ruuskanen O, HyypiäT
J Infect Dis. 2008;197(3):382.
BACKGROUND: Rhinoviruses are the most common cause of respiratory tract infections, but the transmission in families has not been studied using sensitive and specific molecular detection methods.
METHODS: Children hospitalized for any infection were screened for rhinoviruses. Eight families with a rhinovirus-positive index child and 16 families with a rhinovirus-negative index child were monitored for 3 weeks for disease symptoms, and the presence and quantity of rhinoviruses in nasal swab samples were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Rhinoviruses were further identified by melting temperature and partial sequence analysis.
RESULTS: The rates of rhinovirus infection were 1.00 cases per person among the 17 siblings and 0.50 cases per person among the 14 parents of rhinovirus-positive index patients; the rates were 0.54 cases per person among the 24 siblings and 0.23 cases per person among the 30 parents of rhinovirus-negative index patients. Symptomatic infections were associated with an age of<7 years but not with a high copy number of rhinovirus genomes. Virus typing revealed the transmission routes of the viruses and showed that several virus types could circulate in the families simultaneously.
CONCLUSIONS: Rhinoviruses are frequently transmitted from children to other family members. Most rhinovirus infections in young children are symptomatic, but secondary infections in adults are often asymptomatic. Multiple virus types circulate simultaneously in families.
Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org