Medline ® Abstract for Reference 24
of 'Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and pathogenesis of rhinovirus infections'
Rhinovirus stimulation of interleukin-8 in vivo and in vitro: role of NF-kappaB.
Zhu Z, Tang W, Gwaltney JM Jr, Wu Y, Elias JA
Am J Physiol. 1997;273(4 Pt 1):L814.
Neutrophil infiltration is a well-documented early event in the pathogenesis of rhinovirus (RV) infections. To further understand the mechanisms responsible for this neutrophilia, we determined whether interleukin (IL)-8 was present at sites of experimental RV infection in vivo and characterized the mechanism(s) by which RV stimulates IL-8 production in vitro. IL-8 was readily detectable in the nasal washings of all normal volunteers and did not increase with sham nasal inoculation. In contrast, RV infection caused a significant additional increase in nasal IL-8, the levels of which peaked 48-72 h after virus inoculation. RV was a potent stimulator of IL-8 protein production by A549 epithelial-like cells, MRC-5 fibroblasts, and normal human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. This induction was associated with a significant increase in IL-8 mRNA accumulation and gene transcription. RV also stimulated IL-8 promoter-driven luciferase activity. This stimulation was significantly decreased by mutation of the nuclear factor (NF)-IL-6 site and was completely abrogated by mutation of the NF-kappaB site in this promoter. In addition, NF-kappaB-DNA binding activity was rapidly induced in RV-infected cells. This inducible binding was made up of p65 and, to a lesser extent, p50 NF-kappaB moieties. These studies demonstrate that IL-8 is present in normal nasal secretions and that the levels of IL-8 are further increased after RV infection. They also demonstrate that RVs are potent stimulators of IL-8 production and that this induction is mediated, at least in part, by an NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activation pathway. IL-8 may contribute to the pathogenesis of RV infection, and NF-kappaB activation may be a central event in RV-induced pathologies.
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8057, USA.