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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 66

of 'Epidemiology, classification, clinical presentation, prognostic features, and diagnostic work-up of gastrointestinal mesenchymal neoplasms including GIST'

Prognostic value of KIT mutation type, mitotic activity, and histologic subtype in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Singer S, Rubin BP, Lux ML, Chen CJ, Demetri GD, Fletcher CD, Fletcher JA
J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(18):3898.
PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported clinical correlates for KIT mutations in GISTs, but in most of those studies the KIT mutations were found in less than 50% of the GISTs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic relevance for KIT mutations in a series of GISTs in which the mutations were evaluated intensively by genomic and cDNA sequencing.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A comprehensive clinical and pathologic analysis of 48 patients with GISTs who had snap-frozen tissue was performed. The median tumor size was 10 cm (range, 2 to 30 cm). Median follow-up for disease-free patients was 48 months. KIT genomic and cDNA was sequenced by using nucleic acid templates isolated from frozen tumors.
RESULTS: The overall 5-year recurrence-free survival was 41% +/- 6%. Five-year recurrence-free survival for patients with tumors that had mitotic counts of three mitoses or fewer per 30 high-power fields (HPF), more than three to<or= 15 mitoses per 30 HPF, and more than 15 mitoses per 30 HPF were 89% +/- 7%, 49% +/- 12%, and 16% +/- 6%, respectively (P =.0001). The 32 patients withspindle-cell histology had a 49% +/- 7% 5-year recurrence-free survival; in contrast, the 16 patients with epithelioid or mixed histology had a 23% +/- 11% 5-year recurrence-free survival (P =.01). Five-year recurrence-free survival for patients with tumors less than 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, and more than 10 cm were 82% +/- 12%, 45% +/- 9%, and 27% +/- 8%, respectively (P =.03). Prognostic associations were found with particular KIT mutation types, and patients with missense exon 11 mutations had a 5-year recurrence-free survival of 89% +/- 11% compared with 40% +/- 8% for GISTs with other mutation types (P =.03). The independent predictors for disease-free survival were the presence of deletion/insertion exon 11 mutations (hazard ratio [HR]= 4; P =.006), more than 15 mitoses per 30 HPF (HR = 18; P =.0001), mixed histology (HR = 21; P =.0001), and male sex (HR = 3; P =.05).
CONCLUSION: In this series of KIT-expressing GISTs, tumor mitotic activity and histologic subtype were the most important prognostic features. The majority of GISTs contain KIT-activating mutations with the type/location of mutation serving as an independent predictor for disease-free survival. These results suggest that KIT mutation and activation are important in GIST pathogenesis and also may provide important prognostic information.
Department of Pathology and Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. singers@mskcc.org