Medline ® Abstracts for References 2,3
of 'Epidemiology, classification, clinical presentation, prognostic features, and diagnostic work-up of gastrointestinal mesenchymal neoplasms including GIST'
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors--definition, clinical, histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features and differential diagnosis.
Miettinen M, Lasota J
Virchows Arch. 2001;438(1):1.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. They are defined here as KIT (CD117, stem cell factor receptor)-positive mesenchymal spindle cell or epithelioid neoplasms primary in the GI tract, omentum, and mesentery. GISTs typically present in older individuals and are most common in the stomach (60-70%), followed by small intestine (20-25%), colon and rectum (5%), and esophagus (<5%). Benign tumors outnumber the malignant ones by a wide margin. Approximately 70% of GISTs are positive for CD34, 20-30% are positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), 10% are positive for S100 protein and<5% are positive for desmin. The expression of CD34 and SMA is often reciprocal. GISTs commonly have activating mutations in exon 11 (or rarely exon 9 and exon 13) of the KIT gene that encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor for the growth factor named stem cell factor or mast cell growth factor. Ligand-independent activation of KIT appears to be a strong candidate for molecular pathogenesis of GISTs, and it may be a target for future treatment for such tumors. Other genetic changes in GISTs discovered using comparative genomic hybridization include losses in 14q and 22q in both benign and malignant GISTs and occurrence in various gains predominantly in malignant GISTs. GISTs have phenotypic similarities with the interstitial cells of Cajal and, therefore, a histogenetic origin from these cells has been suggested. An alternative possibility, origin of pluripotential stem cells, is also possible; this is supported by the same origin of Cajal cells and smooth muscle and by the common SMA expression in GISTs. GISTs differ clinically and pathogenetically from true leiomyosarcomas (very rare in the GI tract) and leiomyomas. The latter occur in the GI tract, predominantly in the esophagus (intramural tumors) and the colon and rectum (muscularis mucosae tumors). They also differ from schwannomas that are benign S100-positive spindle cell tumors usually presenting in the stomach. GI autonomic nerve tumors (GANTs) are probably a subset of GIST. Other mesenchymal tumors that have to be separated from GISTs include inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in children, desmoid, and dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Angiosarcomas and metastatic melanomas, both of which are often KIT-positive, should not be confused with GISTs.
Department of Soft Tissue Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000, USA. email@example.com
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: recent advances in understanding of their biology.
Miettinen M, Sarlomo-Rikala M, Lasota J
Hum Pathol. 1999;30(10):1213.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the preferred term for mesenchymal tumors specific for the gastrointestinal tract (60% in stomach, 30% small intestine, 10% elsewhere). GISTs include most tumors previously designated as leiomyoma, cellular leiomyoma, leiomyoblastoma, and leiomyosarcoma. However, in the esophagus, leiomyoma is the most common mesenchymal tumor. GISTs are composed of spindle (70%) or epithelioid (30%) cells, and 10%-30% are malignant showing intra-abdominal spread or liver metastases. They are immunohistochemically positive for c-kit (CD117), CD34, and sometimes for actin but are almost always negative for desmin and S100-protein. The malignant GISTs especially show activating mutations in the c-kit gene. GISTs and gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors (GANT) overlap. The cell of origin is not fully understood, but resemblance to the interstitial cells of Cajal, expression of some smooth muscle markers, and occurrence outside of the GI-tract suggest origin from multipotential cells that can differentiate into Cajal and smooth muscle cells.
Department of Soft Tissue Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000, USA.