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Medline ® Abstracts for References 1-5

of 'Epidemiology, classification, clinical presentation, prognostic features, and diagnostic work-up of gastrointestinal mesenchymal neoplasms including GIST'

1
TI
Molecular Insights into the Histogenesis and Pathogenesis of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.
AU
Rubin BP, Fletcher JA, Fletcher CD
SO
Int J Surg Pathol. 2000;8(1):5.
 
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have long been problematic in terms of classification and determination of prognosis. Recent studies have suggested that GISTs differentiate toward a phenotype resembling the interstitial cells of Cajal. This has led to the important discovery that activating mutations in the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase play an important role in the pathogenesis of GISTs. These findings have helped clarify the distinction between GISTs and other mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract and may translate into an improved ability to predict biologic behavior, as well as suggesting possible avenues for rational drug design for the treatment of GISTs. Int J Surg Pathol 8(1):5-10, 2000
AD
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
PMID
2
TI
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors--definition, clinical, histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features and differential diagnosis.
AU
Miettinen M, Lasota J
SO
Virchows Arch. 2001;438(1):1.
 
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. They are defined here as KIT (CD117, stem cell factor receptor)-positive mesenchymal spindle cell or epithelioid neoplasms primary in the GI tract, omentum, and mesentery. GISTs typically present in older individuals and are most common in the stomach (60-70%), followed by small intestine (20-25%), colon and rectum (5%), and esophagus (<5%). Benign tumors outnumber the malignant ones by a wide margin. Approximately 70% of GISTs are positive for CD34, 20-30% are positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), 10% are positive for S100 protein and<5% are positive for desmin. The expression of CD34 and SMA is often reciprocal. GISTs commonly have activating mutations in exon 11 (or rarely exon 9 and exon 13) of the KIT gene that encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor for the growth factor named stem cell factor or mast cell growth factor. Ligand-independent activation of KIT appears to be a strong candidate for molecular pathogenesis of GISTs, and it may be a target for future treatment for such tumors. Other genetic changes in GISTs discovered using comparative genomic hybridization include losses in 14q and 22q in both benign and malignant GISTs and occurrence in various gains predominantly in malignant GISTs. GISTs have phenotypic similarities with the interstitial cells of Cajal and, therefore, a histogenetic origin from these cells has been suggested. An alternative possibility, origin of pluripotential stem cells, is also possible; this is supported by the same origin of Cajal cells and smooth muscle and by the common SMA expression in GISTs. GISTs differ clinically and pathogenetically from true leiomyosarcomas (very rare in the GI tract) and leiomyomas. The latter occur in the GI tract, predominantly in the esophagus (intramural tumors) and the colon and rectum (muscularis mucosae tumors). They also differ from schwannomas that are benign S100-positive spindle cell tumors usually presenting in the stomach. GI autonomic nerve tumors (GANTs) are probably a subset of GIST. Other mesenchymal tumors that have to be separated from GISTs include inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in children, desmoid, and dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Angiosarcomas and metastatic melanomas, both of which are often KIT-positive, should not be confused with GISTs.
AD
Department of Soft Tissue Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000, USA. miettinen@afip.osd.mil
PMID
3
TI
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: recent advances in understanding of their biology.
AU
Miettinen M, Sarlomo-Rikala M, Lasota J
SO
Hum Pathol. 1999;30(10):1213.
 
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the preferred term for mesenchymal tumors specific for the gastrointestinal tract (60% in stomach, 30% small intestine, 10% elsewhere). GISTs include most tumors previously designated as leiomyoma, cellular leiomyoma, leiomyoblastoma, and leiomyosarcoma. However, in the esophagus, leiomyoma is the most common mesenchymal tumor. GISTs are composed of spindle (70%) or epithelioid (30%) cells, and 10%-30% are malignant showing intra-abdominal spread or liver metastases. They are immunohistochemically positive for c-kit (CD117), CD34, and sometimes for actin but are almost always negative for desmin and S100-protein. The malignant GISTs especially show activating mutations in the c-kit gene. GISTs and gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors (GANT) overlap. The cell of origin is not fully understood, but resemblance to the interstitial cells of Cajal, expression of some smooth muscle markers, and occurrence outside of the GI-tract suggest origin from multipotential cells that can differentiate into Cajal and smooth muscle cells.
AD
Department of Soft Tissue Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000, USA.
PMID
4
TI
Extragastrointestinal (soft tissue) stromal tumors: an analysis of 48 cases with emphasis on histologic predictors of outcome.
AU
Reith JD, Goldblum JR, Lyles RH, Weiss SW
SO
Mod Pathol. 2000;13(5):577.
 
The clinicopathologic features of 48 tumors that were histologically similar to gastrointestinal stromal tumors but occurred in the soft tissues of the abdomen were analyzed to determine their overall similarity to their gastrointestinal counterpart, their biologic behavior, and the parameters that predict risk for adverse outcome. Classic leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas were specifically excluded. The tumors occurred in 32 women and 16 men, who ranged in age from 31 to 82 years (mean, 58 years). Forty tumors arose from the soft tissue of the abdominal cavity, and the remainder arose from the retroperitoneum. They ranged in size from 2.1 to 32.0 cm and varied from tumors composed purely of rounded epithelioid cells to those composed of short fusiform cells set in a fine fibrillary collagenous background with some cases showing a mixed pattern. Tumors displayed variable amounts of stromal hyalinization, myxoid change, and cyst formation. The tumors expressed CD117 (c-kit receptor) (100%), CD34 (50%), neuron-specific enolase (44%), smooth muscle actin (26%), desmin (4%), and S-100 protein (4%). Tumors were evaluated with respect to several parameters: size (<10 cm or>10 cm), cellularity (low or high), mitoses (0 to 2 per 50 high-power fields,>2 per 50 high-power fields), nuclear atypia (1 to 3+), cell type (epithelioid, spindled, or mixed), and necrosis (absent or present). These parameters were then evaluated in univariateand multivariate analysis with respect to adverse or nonadverse outcome, the former defined as metastasis or death from tumor. Follow-up information was obtained for 31 patients (range, 4 to 84 months; median, 24 months). One patient presented with an adverse event and, therefore, was excluded from subsequent analysis. Twelve patients (39%) developed metastases or died of tumor. In univariate analyses, cellularity, mitotic activity (>2 per 50 high-power fields), and necrosis were associated with statistically significant increases in the risk for adverse outcome. Despite the relatively small sample size, in a multivariable analysis mitotic activity (relative risk, 7.46; P = .09) and necrosis (relative risk, 3.75; P = .07) displayed trends toward independent predictive value. No association was noted between histologic pattern and outcome. Although only 39% of tumors behaved in a malignant fashion, this figure probably represents a conservative estimate because long-term follow-up (>5 years) was available for only a limited number of patients. Stratification of patients who have extragastrointestinal stromal tumor into those with 0 to 1 adverse histologic factors versus those with 2 to 3 offers the advantage of separating patients into two groups that have a markedly different risk for adverse outcome in the short term (0.02 events versus 0.54 events per person-year; P<.001, respectively). Extragastrointestinal (soft tissue) stromal tumors are histologically and immunophenotypically similar to their gastrointestinal counterpart but have an aggressive course more akin to small intestinal than gastric stromal tumors.
AD
University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
PMID
5
TI
KIT-negative gastrointestinal stromal tumors: proof of concept and therapeutic implications.
AU
Medeiros F, Corless CL, Duensing A, Hornick JL, Oliveira AM, Heinrich MC, Fletcher JA, Fletcher CD
SO
Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28(7):889.
 
The diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is currently based on morphologic features and immunohistochemical demonstration of KIT (CD117). However, some tumors (in our estimation approximately 4%) have clinicopathologic features of GIST but do not express KIT. To determine if these lesions are truly GISTs, we evaluated 25 tumors with clinical and histologic features typical of GIST, but with negative KIT immunohistochemistry, for KIT and PDGFRA mutations using DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue. Most tumors originated in the stomach (N = 14) or omentum/mesentery (N = 5). The neoplasms were composed of epithelioid cells (13 cases), admixed epithelioid and spindle cells (8 cases), or spindle cells (4 cases). Absence of KIT expression was confirmed by immunoblotting in 5 cases. Tumor karyotypes performed in 4 cases were noncomplex with monosomy 14 or 14q deletion, typical of GIST. Mutational analysis revealed PDGFRA and KIT mutations in 18 and 4 tumors, respectively, whereas 3 tumors did not have apparent KIT or PDGFRA mutations. The PDGFRA mutations primarily involved exon 18 (N = 15) and included 11 tumors with missense mutation in codon 842 (PDGFRA D842V or D842Y). In conclusion, a small subset of GISTs with otherwise typical clinicopathologic and cytogenetic features do not express detectable KIT protein. When compared with KIT-positive GISTs, these KIT-negative GISTs are more likely to have epithelioid cell morphology, contain PDGFRA oncogenic mutations, and arise in the omentum/peritoneal surface. Notably, some KIT-negative GISTs contain imatinib-sensitive KIT or PDGFRA mutations; therefore, patients with KIT-negative GISTs should not, a priori, be denied imatinib therapy.
AD
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital&Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
PMID