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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 71

of 'Enterotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents'

Discovery of novel mutations in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene associated with toxicity of fluoropyrimidines and viewpoint on preemptive pharmacogenetic screening in patients.
Del Re M, Michelucci A, Di Leo A, Cantore M, Bordonaro R, Simi P, Danesi R
EPMA J. 2015;6(1):17. Epub 2015 Sep 2.
BACKGROUND: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of the metabolic pathway of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and other fluoropyrimidines to inactive compounds. For this reason, severe, life-threatening toxicities may occur in patients with deficient DPD activity when administered standard doses of 5-FU and its prodrugs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected three patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who displayed unexpected severe adverse reactions after treatment with 5-FU and capecitabine. To investigate the possible involvement of deficient variants of the DPD gene (DPYD), a denaturing HPLC (dHPLC) approach followed by target exon sequencing of DPYD was performed on DNA extracted from peripheral blood.
RESULTS: Three novel non-synonymous mutations of DPYD, c.2509-2510insC, c.1801G>C, and c.680G>A, were detected in these subjects. Due to the absence of other deficient variants of DPYD and the compatibility of adverse reactions with fluoropyrimidine treatment, the novel variants were associated with a poor-metabolizer phenotype.
CONCLUSIONS: Stratification of patients on the basis of their genotype may help prevent toxicity, and the large body of evidence about the pathogenesis of fluoropyrimidine-induced adverse reactions strongly encourages the adoption of best practice recommendations to appropriately address this important clinical issue. This approach is of utmost importance within a preventive, prognostic, and personalized approach to patient care in the oncology setting.
Division of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 55, Via Roma, 56126 Pisa, Italy.