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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 45

of 'Enterotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents'

Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the DPYD gene in patients with lethal 5-fluorouracil toxicity.
Ezzeldin H, Johnson MR, Okamoto Y, Diasio R
Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9(8):3021.
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) enzyme deficiency is a pharmacogenetic syndrome with possible fatal outcome following 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. Several studies examining the molecular basis for DPD deficiency have identified over 30 sequence variations in the DPYD gene (which codes for the DPD enzyme). Our laboratory has recently developed and validated a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography method capable of identifying both known and unknown sequence variations in the DPYD gene. In the present study, we used this denaturing high performance liquid chromatography approach to examine the DPYD genotype of three patients who experienced lethal toxicity after administration of 5-FU. DPD enzyme activity could only be measured in one patient before death and demonstrated that lethal toxicity can occur in a partially DPD-deficient individual. Multiple heterozygous sequence variations (both known and unknown) were detected in all three patients including the novel variants 545T>A, M182K and 2329G>T, A777S. We conclude that (a) lethal toxicity can occur in partially DPD-deficient individuals after administration of 5-FU and is not exclusive to profoundly DPD-deficient individuals as suggested previously, (b) the complicated heterozygote genotype seen in these patients, combined with DPD deficiency being an autosomal codominant inherited syndrome, precludes the use of simple genotyping assays that identify only one or two mutations as a method for identifying DPD-deficient individuals; and (c) these multiple heterozygote genotypes (which are more difficult to accurately characterize) may be responsible for some of the conflicting reports which suggests a lack of correlation between phenotype and genotype.
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham, Alabama 35294-3300, USA.