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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 40

of 'Enterotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents'

Severe enteropathy among patients with stage II/III colon cancer treated on a randomized trial of bolus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus or minus oxaliplatin: a prospective analysis.
Kuebler JP, Colangelo L, O'Connell MJ, Smith RE, Yothers G, Begovic M, Robinson B, Seay TE, Wolmark N
Cancer. 2007;110(9):1945.
BACKGROUND: Cases of severe gastrointestinal toxicity were monitored prospectively during NSABP C-07, a randomized clinical trial of adjuvant therapy for patients with stage II/III colon cancer.
METHODS: Patients were treated with weekly bolus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (FL; "Roswell Park Regimen") or the same regimen plus oxaliplatin (FLOX).
RESULTS: Of 1857 patients, 79 (4.3%) developed a syndrome of bowel wall injury (BWI, small or large) characterized by hospitalization for the management of severe diarrhea or dehydration and radiographic or endoscopic evidence of bowel wall thickening or ulceration. Fifty-one (64.6%) of these adverse events occurred in patients treated with FLOX and 28 (35.4%) in those treated with FL (P<.01). Enteric sepsis (ES), characterized by grade 3 or greater diarrhea and grade 4 neutropenia with or without proven bacteremia occurred in 22 patients treated with FLOX, versus 8 in those treated with FL (P = .01). Patients>60 years were at higher risk for BWI after treatment with FLOX (6.7%) versus treatment with FL (2.9%, P<.01). Female patients had a higher incidence of BWI with FLOX (9.1%) than with FL (3.9%, P<.01). Severe gastrointestinal toxicity usually occurred during the third or fourth week on the first cycle of therapy, required hospitalization, and was managed with fluids, antidiarrheals, and antibiotics. There were 5 deaths (0.3%) due to enteropathy, 2 related to ES and 3 related to both BWI and ES. Seventy-one percent of patients resumed treatment with FL after recovery.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with adjuvant FL should be closely monitored for diarrhea and aggressively managed, especially if oxaliplatin has been added to the regimen. Society.
National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212, USA.