Medline ® Abstracts for References 1,2
of 'Endoscopic ultrasound in the staging of exocrine pancreatic cancer'
The epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in the United States: changes below the surface.
Shaib YH, Davila JA, El-Serag HB
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24(1):87.
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States.
AIM: To examine temporal changes in the incidence and survival of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: Using data from nine registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results programme, age-adjusted incidence rates per 100 000 and survival rates were calculated for pancreatic cancer between 1977 and 2001.
RESULTS: We identified 58 655 cases of pancreatic cancer. The age-adjusted incidence rate remained stable during the study period (11.3 in 1977-1981 and 10.9 in 1997-2001). Overall, men were 30% more affected than women (age-adjusted incidence rate of 13.0 in men and 9.8 in women). The age-adjusted incidence rates were almost 50% higher among Blacks (16.4) than Whites (10.8) and people of other races (9.8). Over time the proportions of patients with localized disease decreased from 12.3% to 7.4% and those with regional disease increased from 18.6% to 25.8%, while metastatic disease remained stable (52.5% vs. 49.8%). The 1-year relative survival increased from 15.2% in 1977-1981 to 21.6% in 1997-2001.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of pancreatic cancer is stable. A shift from localized to regional disease was observed over time. The overall survival remains poor despite important improvements among patients with early stage disease.
Section of Health Services Research, Michael E. Debakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths.
Siegel R, Ward E, Brawley O, Jemal A
CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61(4):212.
Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. A total of 1,596,670 new cancer cases and 571,950 deaths from cancer are projected to occur in the United States in 2011. Overall cancer incidence rates were stable in men in the most recent time period after decreasing by 1.9% per year from 2001 to 2005; in women, incidence rates have been declining by 0.6% annually since 1998. Overall cancer death rates decreased in all racial/ethnic groups in both men and women from 1998 through 2007, with the exception of American Indian/Alaska Native women, in whom rates were stable. African American and Hispanic men showed the largest annual decreases in cancer death rates during this time period (2.6% and 2.5%, respectively). Lung cancer death rates showed a significant decline in women after continuously increasing since the 1930s. The reduction in the overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of about 898,000 deaths from cancer. However, this progress has not benefitted all segments of the population equally; cancer death rates for individuals with the least education are more than twice those of the most educated. The elimination of educational and racial disparities could potentially have avoided about 37% (60,370) of the premature cancer deaths among individuals aged 25 to 64 years in 2007 alone. Further progress can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population with an emphasis on those groups in the lowest socioeconomic bracket. CA Cancer J Clin 2011.©2011 American Cancer Society.
Surveillance Information, Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA 30303-1002, USA.