Worldwide in 2008, 288,000 women were diagnosed with uterine cancer . The mortality rate was 1.7 to 2.4 per 100,000 women. In the United States, as with other developed countries, uterine cancer was the most common gynecologic malignancy, with over 50,000 new cases and almost 8600 deaths from the disease in each year . Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) is the most common histologic site and type of uterine cancer.
The main risk factor for endometrioid endometrial carcinoma is an excess of endogenous or exogenous estrogen without adequate opposition by a progestin (eg, postmenopausal estrogen therapy without a progestin). Other risk factors include tamoxifen therapy, obesity, and nulliparity (table 1). In addition, women with Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are at a markedly increased risk of endometrial cancer.
The epidemiology and risk factors of endometrial carcinoma are reviewed here. An overview of endometrial carcinoma can be found separately. (See "Overview of endometrial carcinoma".) Related topics are discussed in detail separately, including:
●Histopathology and pathogenesis (See "Endometrial carcinoma: Histopathology and pathogenesis".)
●Clinical features, diagnosis, and screening for high-risk women (See "Endometrial carcinoma: Clinical features and diagnosis".)