Emergent literacy including language development
- Teresa K Duryea, MD
Teresa K Duryea, MD
- Section Editor — General Pediatrics
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Jan E Drutz, MD
Jan E Drutz, MD
- Section Editor — General Pediatrics
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Marilyn Augustyn, MD
Marilyn Augustyn, MD
- Section Editor — Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
- Associate Professor
- Boston University School of Medicine
Literacy acquisition begins long before children encounter formal school instruction. During their early years, children acquire knowledge and skills that are literate behaviors in informal settings. The term emergent literacy [1-3] emphasizes that:
●Literacy development is an ongoing process
●All aspects of literacy develop simultaneously
●There is a natural hierarchy to the stages of development
●Language and literacy acquisition share important features
- Teale W, Sulzby E. Emergent literacy as a perspective for examining how young children become writers and readers. In: Emergent Literacy: Writing and Reading, Teale W, Sulzby E (Eds), Ablex Publishing Corp, Norwood, NJ 1986.
- Lipson MY, Wixson KK. The foundations of literacy. In: Assessment and Introduction of Reading Disability — An Interactive Approach, Lipson MY, Wixson KK (Eds), Harper Collins Publishers Inc, New York 1991.
- Whitehurst GJ, Lonigan CJ. Child development and emergent literacy. Child Dev 1998; 69:848.
- Ruben RJ. Communicative disorders. The first year of life. Pediatr Clin North Am 1994; 41:1035.
- Flax JF, Rapin I. Evaluating children with delayed speech and language. Contemp Pediatr 1998; 15:164.
- Mason JM. When do children begin to read: An exploration of four year old children's letter and word reading competencies. Reading Research Quarterly 1980; 2:203.
- Frith U. A developmental framework dyslexia. Ann Dyslexia 1986; 36:69.
- Sulzby E. Writing and reading: Signs of oral and written language organization in the young child. In: Emergent Literacy: Writing and Reading, Teale W, Sulzby E (Eds), Ablex Publishing Corp, Norwood, NJ 1986.
- Snow CE. Literacy and language: Relationships during the preschool years. Harvard Ed R 1983; 53:165.
- Larson K, Russ SA, Nelson BB, et al. Cognitive ability at kindergarten entry and socioeconomic status. Pediatrics 2015; 135:e440.
- Clay MM. The reading behavior of five-year old children: A research report. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies 1967; 2:11.
- Goodman KS, Goodman YM. Learning to read is natural. In: Theory and Practice of Early Reading, Resnick LB, Weaver P (Eds), Hilldale, Erlbaum, NJ 1979.
- McCormick CE, Mason JM. Intervention procedures for increasing preschool children's interest in and knowledge about reading. In: Literacy: Writing and Reading, Teale W, Sulzby E (Eds), Ablex Publishing Corp, Norwood, NJ 1986.
- US Department of Education. America's Kindergartners. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2000070 (Accessed on May 27, 2008).
- Stanton WR, Feehan M, McGee R, Silva PA. The relative value of reading ability and IQ as predictors of teacher-reported behavior problems. J Learn Disabil 1990; 23:514.
- Duursma E, Augustyn M, Zuckerman B. Reading aloud to children: the evidence. Arch Dis Child 2008; 93:554.
- Horst JS, Parsons KL, Bryan NM. Get the story straight: contextual repetition promotes word learning from storybooks. Front Psychol 2011; 2:17.
- Wells G. Preschool literacy-related activities and success in school. In: Literacy, Language, and Learning: The Nature and Consequences of Reading and Writing, Olson DR, Torrance N, Hildyard A (Eds), Cambridge University Press, New York 1985.
- Scarborough HS, Dobrich W, Hager M. Preschool literacy experience and later reading achievement. J Learn Disabil 1991; 24:508.
- Snow CE, Ninio A. The contracts of literacy: What children learn from learning to read books. In: Emergent Literacy: Writing and Reading, Teale W, Sulzby E (Eds), Ablex Publishing Corp, Norwood, NJ 1986.
- Locke J. Pittsburgh's beginning with books project. Sch Lib J 1988; :22.
- Needlman R, Fried LE, Morley DS, et al. Clinic-based intervention to promote literacy. A pilot study. Am J Dis Child 1991; 145:881.
- Silverstein M, Iverson L, Lozano P. An English-language clinic-based literacy program is effective for a multilingual population. Pediatrics 2002; 109:E76.
- High P, Hopmann M, LaGasse L, Linn H. Evaluation of a clinic-based program to promote book sharing and bedtime routines among low-income urban families with young children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998; 152:459.
- Golova N, Alario AJ, Vivier PM, et al. Literacy promotion for Hispanic families in a primary care setting: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 1999; 103:993.
- Needlman R, Toker KH, Dreyer BP, et al. Effectiveness of a primary care intervention to support reading aloud: a multicenter evaluation. Ambul Pediatr 2005; 5:209.
- Weitzman CC, Roy L, Walls T, Tomlin R. More evidence for reach out and read: a home-based study. Pediatrics 2004; 113:1248.
- Sanders LM, Gershon TD, Huffman LC, Mendoza FS. Prescribing books for immigrant children: a pilot study to promote emergent literacy among the children of Hispanic immigrants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000; 154:771.
- Mendelsohn AL, Mogilner LN, Dreyer BP, et al. The impact of a clinic-based literacy intervention on language development in inner-city preschool children. Pediatrics 2001; 107:130.
- High PC, LaGasse L, Becker S, et al. Literacy promotion in primary care pediatrics: can we make a difference? Pediatrics 2000; 105:927.
- Theriot JA, Franco SM, Sisson BA, et al. The impact of early literacy guidance on language skills of 3-year-olds. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2003; 42:165.
- Sharif I, Rieber S, Ozuah PO. Exposure to Reach Out and Read and vocabulary outcomes in inner city preschoolers. J Natl Med Assoc 2002; 94:171.
- Adams MJ. Beginning to Read: Thinking and learning about print, The MIT Press, Cambridge,MA 1990.
- Reese E, Cox A. Quality of adult book reading affects children's emergent literacy. Dev Psychol 1999; 35:20.
- Pellegrini AD, Brody G. Parents' book-reading habits with their children. J Educ Psychol 1985; 77:332.
- Pellegrini AD, Perlmutter JC, Galda L, Brody GH. Joint reading between black Head Start children and their mothers. Child Dev 1990; 61:443.
- Whitehurst GJ, Falco CJ, Lonigan CJ, et al. Accelerating language development through picture book reading. Dev Psychol 1988; 24:552.
- Ninio A. Picture-book reading in mother-infant dyads belonging to two subgroups in Israel. Child Dev 1980; 51:587.
- High P, Hopmann M, LaGasse L, et al. Child centered literacy orientation: a form of social capital? Pediatrics 1999; 103:e55.
- Teale WH. Home background and young children's literacy development. In: Emergent Literacy: Writing and Reading, Teale W, Sulzby E (Eds), Ablex Publishing Corp, Norwood, NJ 1986.
- Frankenburg, WK, Dodds, JB, et al. Denver developmental screening text II. Denver Developmental Materials, Inc, Denver, CO 1990.
- Zimmerman IL, Steiner VG, Pond RE. Preschool Language Scale-3. The Psychological Corp, San Antonio, TX 1992.
- Coplan J. Early Language Milestone Scale. PRO-ED, Austin, TX 1993.
- Coplan J. Normal speech and language development: an overview. Pediatr Rev 1995; 16:91.
- Capute AJ, Palmer FB, Shapiro BK, et al. Clinical linguistic and auditory milestone scale: prediction of cognition in infancy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1986; 28:762.
- Capute AJ, Shapiro BK, Palmer FB. Marking the milestones of language development. Contemp Pediatr 1987; 4:24.
- Sturner RA, Howard BJ. Preschool development. 1: Communicative and motor aspects. Pediatr Rev 1997; 18:291.
- Johnson CP, Blasco PA. Infant growth and development. Pediatr Rev 1997; 18:224.
- Lewis BA, O'Donnell B, Freebairn LA, Taylor HG. Spoken language and written expression—interplay of delays. Am J Speech Lang Pathol 1998; 7:77.
- Stothard SE, Snowling MJ, Bishop DV, et al. Language-impaired preschoolers: a follow-up into adolescence. J Speech Lang Hear Res 1998; 41:407.
- Johnson CJ, Beitchman JH, Young A, et al. Fourteen-year follow-up of children with and without speech/language impairments: speech/language stability and outcomes. J Speech Lang Hear Res 1999; 42:744.
- Schoon I, Parsons S, Rush R, Law J. Children's language ability and psychosocial development: a 29-year follow-up study. Pediatrics 2010; 126:e73.
- Whitehouse AJ, Robinson M, Zubrick SR. Late talking and the risk for psychosocial problems during childhood and adolescence. Pediatrics 2011; 128:e324.
- Chiocca EM. Language development in bilingual children. Pediatr Nurs 1998; 24:43.
- Bosch L, Sebastián-Gallés N. Native-language recognition abilities in 4-month-old infants from monolingual and bilingual environments. Cognition 1997; 65:33.
- Oller DK, Eilers RE, Urbano R, Cobo-Lewis AB. Development of precursors to speech in infants exposed to two languages. J Child Lang 1997; 24:407.
- Bialystok E. Effects of bilingualism and biliteracy on children's emerging concepts of print. Dev Psychol 1997; 33:429.
- Umbel VM, Pearson BZ, Fernández MC, Oller DK. Measuring bilingual children's receptive vocabularies. Child Dev 1992; 63:1012.
- Bruck M, Genesee F. Phonological awareness in young second language learners. J Child Lang 1995; 22:307.
- Galambos SJ, Goldin-Meadow S. The effects of learning two languages on levels of metalinguistic awareness. Cognition 1990; 34:1.
- Bialystok E. Levels of bilingualism and levels of linguistic awareness. Dev Psychol 1988; 24:560.
- Genesee F, Nicoladis E, Paradis J. Language differentiation in early bilingual development. J Child Lang 1995; 22:611.
- Council on Early Childhood, High PC, Klass P. Literacy promotion: an essential component of primary care pediatric practice. Pediatrics 2014; 134:404.