Electrocardiographic diagnosis of myocardial infarction in the presence of bundle branch block or a paced rhythm
- Ary L Goldberger, MD
Ary L Goldberger, MD
- Section Editor — Electrocardiography
- Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- Section Editors
- Bernard J Gersh, MB, ChB, DPhil, FRCP, MACC
Bernard J Gersh, MB, ChB, DPhil, FRCP, MACC
- Editor-in-Chief — Cardiovascular Medicine
- Section Editor — Coronary Heart Disease
- Section Editor — Myopericardial Disease
- Professor of Medicine
- Mayo Medical School
- Peter J Zimetbaum, MD
Peter J Zimetbaum, MD
- Section Editor — Cardiac Arrhythmias
- Associate Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
The diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) is typically suspected from the history of chest pain and may be confirmed by the electrocardiogram (ECG) and elevations in serum troponins and CK-MB. (See "Criteria for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction" and "Electrocardiogram in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and infarction".)
The ECG diagnosis of an acute MI in patients with right or left bundle branch block (RBBB or LBBB) or a paced rhythm will be reviewed here. Other issues related to RBBB and LBBB are discussed separately. (See "Right bundle branch block" and "Left bundle branch block".)
The electrocardiogram (ECG) diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) is more difficult when the baseline ECG shows a bundle branch block pattern that may precede or be a complication of the infarct or the patient has a paced rhythm [1-5]. The frequency of bundle branch block was best assessed in a review of almost 300,000 infarctions from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 2 investigators . Right bundle branch block was present in approximately 6 percent and left bundle branch block in 7 percent of infarctions. Patients with bundle branch block were significantly less likely than those without bundle branch block to receive appropriate therapy with aspirin or beta blockers, had more comorbid disease, and had a significant increase in in-hospital mortality.
RIGHT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK WITH MI
The effect of right bundle branch block (RBBB) must be considered in both Q wave (ST elevation) and non-Q wave (non-ST elevation) infarctions.
Q wave MI — Right bundle branch block does not usually interfere with the diagnosis of a Q wave myocardial infarction (MI). MI most often involves the left ventricle and therefore affects the initial phase of ventricular depolarization, sometimes producing abnormal Q waves. In contrast, right bundle branch block (RBBB) primarily affects the terminal phase of ventricular depolarization, producing a wide R' wave in the right chest leads and a wide S wave in the left chest leads (waveform 1A-B). These changes are due to delayed depolarization of the right ventricle, while depolarization of the left ventricle is not affected. (See "Right bundle branch block".)
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- GENERAL PRINCIPLES
- RIGHT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK WITH MI
- Q wave MI
- Non-Q wave MI
- LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK WITH MI
- Acute MI
- - Attempts to improve ECG diagnosis
- - Sgarbossa criteria
- - Ventricular pacing
- Prior infarction
- - Left ventricular free wall
- - Anteroseptal
- - Free wall and septal
- - Inferior wall