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Medline ® Abstracts for References 6-10

of 'Effect of antidepressants on suicide risk in children and adolescents'

Suicide rates in clinical trials of SSRIs, other antidepressants, and placebo: analysis of FDA reports.
Khan A, Khan S, Kolts R, Brown WA
Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(4):790.
OBJECTIVE: Previous reports suggesting that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use is associated with increased suicidal risk have not assessed completed suicides. The authors analyzed reports from randomized controlled trials to compare suicide rates among depressed patients assigned to an SSRI, other antidepressants, or placebo.
METHOD: Food and Drug Administration (FDA) summary reports of the controlled clinical trials for nine modern FDA-approved antidepressants provided data for comparing rates of suicide.
RESULTS: Of 48,277 depressed patients participating in the trials, 77 committed suicide. Based on patient exposure years, similar suicide rates were seen among those randomly assigned to an SSRI (0.59%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.31%-0.87%), a standard comparison antidepressant (0.76%, 95% CI=0.49%-1.03%), or placebo (0.45%, 95% CI=0.01%-0.89%).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings fail to support either an overall difference in suicide risk between antidepressant- and placebo-treated depressed subjects in controlled trials or a difference between SSRIs and either other types of antidepressants or placebo.
Northwest Clinical Research Center, Bellevue, Washington, USA. akhan@nwcrc.net
Fluoxetine and suicide: a meta-analysis of controlled trials of treatment for depression.
Beasley CM Jr, Dornseif BE, Bosomworth JC, Sayler ME, Rampey AH Jr, Heiligenstein JH, Thompson VL, Murphy DJ, Masica DN
BMJ. 1991;303(6804):685.
OBJECTIVE: A comprehensive meta-analysis of clinical trial data was performed to assess the possible association of fluoxetine and suicidality (suicidal acts and ideation).
DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of pooled data from 17 double blind clinical trials in patients with major depressive disorder comparing fluoxetine (n = 1765) with a tricyclic antidepressant (n = 731) or placebo (n = 569), or both.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Multiple data sources were searched to identify patients with suicidal acts. Suicidal ideation was assessed with item 3 of the Hamilton depression rating scale, which systematically rates suicidality. Emergence of substantial suicidal ideation was defined as a change in the rating of this item from 0 or 1 at baseline to 3 or 4 during double blind treatment; worsening was defined as any increase from baseline; improvement was defined as a decrease from baseline at the last visit during the treatment.
RESULTS: Suicidal acts didnot differ significantly in comparisons of fluoxetine with placebo (0.2% v 0.2%, p = 0.494, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted incidence difference) and with tricyclic antidepressants (0.7% v 0.4%, p = 0.419). The pooled incidence of suicidal acts was 0.3% for fluoxetine, 0.2% for placebo, and 0.4% for tricyclic antidepressants, and fluoxetine did not differ significantly from either placebo (p = 0.533, Pearson's chi 2) or tricyclic antidepressants (p = 0.789). Suicidal ideation emerged marginally significantly less often with fluoxetine than with placebo (0.9% v 2.6%, p = 0.094) and numerically less often than with tricyclic antidepressants (1.7% v 3.6%, p = 0.102). The pooled incidence of emergence of substantial suicidal ideation was 1.2% for fluoxetine, 2.6% for placebo, and 3.6% for tricyclic antidepressants. The incidence was significantly lower with fluoxetine than with placebo (p = 0.042) and tricyclic antidepressants (p = 0.001). Any degree of worsening of suicidal ideation was similar with fluoxetine and placebo (15.4% v 17.9%, p = 0.196) and with fluoxetine and tricyclic antidepressants (15.6% v 16.3%, p = 0.793). The pooled incidence of worsening of suicidal ideation was 15.3% for fluoxetine, 17.9% for placebo, and 16.3% for tricyclic antidepressants. The incidence did not differ significantly with fluoxetine and placebo (p = 0.141) or tricyclic antidepressants (p = 0.542). Suicidal ideation improved significantly more with fluoxetine than with placebo (72.0% v 54.8%, p less than 0.001) and was similar to the improvement with tricyclic antidepressants (72.5% v 69.8%, p = 0.294). The pooled incidence of improvement of suicidal ideation was 72.2% for fluoxetine, 54.8% for placebo, and 69.8% for tricyclic antidepressants. The incidence with fluoxetine was significantly greater than with placebo (p less than 0.001) and did not differ from that with tricyclic antidepressants (p = 0.296).
CONCLUSIONS: Data from these trials do not show that fluoxetine is associated with an increased risk of suicidal acts or emergence of substantial suicidal thoughts among depressed patients.
Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285.
Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial.
March J, Silva S, Petrycki S, Curry J, Wells K, Fairbank J, Burns B, Domino M, McNulty S, Vitiello B, Severe J, Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) Team
JAMA. 2004;292(7):807.
CONTEXT: Initial treatment of major depressive disorder in adolescents may include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). However, little is known about their relative or combined effectiveness.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of 4 treatments among adolescents with major depressive disorder.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized controlled trial of a volunteer sample of 439 patients between the ages of 12 to 17 years with a primary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The trial was conducted at 13 US academic and community clinics between spring 2000 and summer 2003.
INTERVENTIONS: Twelve weeks of (1) fluoxetine alone (10to 40 mg/d), (2) CBT alone, (3) CBT with fluoxetine (10 to 40 mg/d), or (4) placebo (equivalent to 10 to 40 mg/d). Placebo and fluoxetine alone were administered double-blind; CBT alone and CBT with fluoxetine were administered unblinded.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised total score and, for responder analysis, a (dichotomized) Clinical Global Impressions improvement score.
RESULTS: Compared with placebo, the combination of fluoxetine with CBT was statistically significant (P =.001) on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Compared with fluoxetine alone (P =.02) and CBT alone (P =.01), treatment of fluoxetine with CBT was superior. Fluoxetine alone is a superior treatment to CBT alone (P =.01). Rates of response for fluoxetine with CBT were 71.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 62%-80%); fluoxetine alone, 60.6% (95% CI, 51%-70%); CBT alone, 43.2% (95% CI, 34%-52%); and placebo, 34.8% (95% CI, 26%-44%). On the Clinical Global Impressions improvement responder analysis, the 2 fluoxetine-containing conditions were statistically superior to CBT and to placebo. Clinically significant suicidal thinking, which was present in 29% of the sample at baseline, improved significantly in all 4 treatment groups. Fluoxetine with CBT showed the greatest reduction (P =.02). Seven (1.6%) of 439 patients attempted suicide; there were no completed suicides.
CONCLUSION: The combination of fluoxetine with CBT offered the most favorable tradeoff between benefit and risk for adolescents with major depressive disorder.
Duke Clinical Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. jsmarch@acpub.duke.edu
American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Preliminary report of the Task Force on SSRIs and Suicidal Behavior in Youth. January 21, 2004. www.acnp.org (Accessed on September 13, 2007).
no abstract available
Suicidality in pediatric patients treated with antidepressant drugs.
Hammad TA, Laughren T, Racoosin J
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(3):332.
CONTEXT: There has been concern that widely used antidepressant agents might be associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) in pediatric patients.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between antidepressant drugs and suicidality in pediatric patients participating in randomized, placebo-controlled trials.
DATA SOURCES: Data were derived from 23 trials conducted in 9 drug company-supported programs evaluating the effectiveness of antidepressants in pediatric patients and 1 multicenter trial (the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study) that evaluated fluoxetine hydrochloride.
STUDY SELECTION: All placebo-controlled trials submitted to the Food and Drug Administration were eligible for inclusion. Evaluable data were derived from 4582 patients in 24 trials. Sixteen trials studied patients with major depressive disorder, and the remaining 8 studied obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 4), generalized anxiety disorder (n = 2), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 1), and social anxiety disorder (n = 1). Only 20 trials were included in the risk ratio analysis of suicidality because 4 trials had no events in the drug or placebo groups.
DATA EXTRACTION: Individual patient data were available for all the trials.
DATA SYNTHESIS: A meta-analysis was conducted to obtain overall suicidality risk estimates for each drug individually, for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depression trials as a group, and for all evaluable trials combined. There were no completed suicides in any of these trials. The multicenter trial was the only individual trial to show a statistically significant risk ratio (4.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-20.92). The overall risk ratio for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depression trials was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.02-2.68) and for all drugs across all indications was 1.95 (95% CI, 1.28-2.98). The overall risk difference for all drugs across all indications was 0.02 (95% CI, 0.01-0.03).
CONCLUSION: Use of antidepressant drugs in pediatric patients is associated with a modestly increased risk of suicidality.
Division of Neuropharmacological Drug Products, HFD-120, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, USA. laughren@cder.fda.gov