Echocardiographic evaluation of ventricular septal defects
- Ann Kavanaugh-McHugh, MD
Ann Kavanaugh-McHugh, MD
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is one of the most common congenital cardiac abnormalities in the newborn, but it is less common in the adult due to spontaneous closure of most muscular VSDs during early growth. It can occur as an isolated finding or in combination with other congenital defects. VSD can also be an acquired disorder, occurring after acute myocardial infarction or chest wall trauma. (See "Mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction".)
The echocardiographic evaluation of VSD will be reviewed here. Alternative imaging modalities for assessing VSDs, as well as the pathophysiology and clinical features of this defect, are discussed separately. (See "Clinical utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging", section on 'Congenital heart disease' and "Pathophysiology and clinical features of isolated ventricular septal defects in infants and children".)
Echocardiography is valuable not only in diagnosing VSDs but also in the percutaneous and surgical treatment of these defects . Echocardiographic evaluation of VSDs includes:
●Identification of the location of defects on the septum
●Establishing the number of defects
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- ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION
- Membranous VSD
- Muscular defects
- Supracristal defects
- Inlet defects
- Malalignment defects
- HEMODYNAMIC ASSESSMENT
- Shunt determination
- Estimation of left ventricular end diastolic pressures
- Assessment of right ventricular and pulmonary artery pressures
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS