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Echocardiographic evaluation of the pulmonic valve and pulmonary artery

Authors
Nelson B Schiller, MD
Bryan Ristow, MD, FACC, FASE, FACP
Xiushui Ren, MD
Section Editors
Warren J Manning, MD
William H Gaasch, MD
Deputy Editor
Susan B Yeon, MD, JD, FACC

INTRODUCTION

Echocardiographic imaging of the pulmonic valve and Doppler measurement of transpulmonary flow are potent tools in the clinical evaluation of disorders of the pulmonic valve and pulmonary arteries.  

The majority of clinically important lesions at the level of the valve, both stenotic and regurgitant, are associated with congenital heart disease. Rarely, acquired lesions, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and carcinoid heart disease, involve the pulmonic valve. Identification and characterization of these pathologies requires thorough echocardiographic interrogation and consideration of clinical context. Finally, evaluation of flow through the pulmonic valve and right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) are essential elements for evaluating hemodynamics. Careful measurements can yield significant information regarding flow, pressure and resistance in the pulmonary circulatory bed.

VIEWS FOR EVALUATION OF THE PULMONIC VALVE

Basic transthoracic views — Interrogation of the pulmonic valve by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) begins with the parasternal short axis at the level of the aortic valve, where pulmonic valve anatomy can be examined for thickening, doming, or vegetation. Color flow Doppler is placed over the RVOT to detect flow acceleration or regurgitation. Then, using both continuous wave and pulse wave Doppler at the level of the pulmonary valve, velocities across the pulmonary valve in systole and diastole and peak velocities around the RVOT can be measured (figure 1 and image 1 and image 2). Several cycles of these views should be recorded to account for small variations in velocities during the respiratory cycle. M-mode through the pulmonary valve can also be obtained in this view. Tilting the probe in a slight cranial direction gives a clearer view of both the pulmonic valve and the proximal pulmonary artery (image 3). Color Doppler demonstrates flows proximal and distal to the valve and pulsed and continuous wave Doppler records the waveforms from that flow. The valve and artery may also be viewed from an orthogonal plane to assure complete interrogation of the structures and the most axial flow signals. Although the apical and subcostal views can be useful in imaging the right ventricle as it relates to the pulmonic valve and arteries (and occasionally allows for visualization of the pulmonic valve), it is often difficult to adequately image the pulmonary arterial system in these views. For further imaging of the branch pulmonary arteries, the suprasternal notch view with visualization of the aortic arch may be used (image 4).

Three-dimensional transthoracic views — If there is excellent visualization of the pulmonic valve in two dimensions, a three-dimensional reconstruction may be helpful in further defining valvular and proximal arterial anatomy. This may be especially useful when considering interventions on prosthetic valves [1].

Transesophageal echocardiography — The pulmonic valve can be imaged from several views [2]. First, it can be obtained by turning the probe counterclockwise from the mid-to-high esophageal ascending aorta long-axis view (approximately 110 to 130°). At this position, the main pulmonary artery is seen with the pulmonic valve in the far field. Spectral Doppler interrogations can be performed here. At the mid-to-high esophageal ascending aortic short-axis view (approximately 40 to 60°), both the RV inflow and outflow (including the pulmonic valve) can be visualized. Here, two of the pulmonic leaflets can be seen. In the presence of calcific aortic stenosis or aortic prosthesis, acoustic noise can limit visualization of the pulmonic valve, which is immediately anterior to the aortic valve.

                        

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Mon Jun 27 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
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