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Eales' disease

George N Papaliodis, MD
Section Editor
Jonathan Trobe, MD
Deputy Editor
Monica Ramirez Curtis, MD, MPH


Eales’ disease is a form of vasculitis typified by vascular inflammation in the peripheral retina. Because of its tendency to involve veins, the disorder has also been termed “periphlebitis retinae” and “idiopathic retinal periphlebitis.”

The clinical presentation, treatment, and prognosis of Eales' disease are distinct from those of other inflammatory conditions that involve the retina. Eales' disease must be distinguished from systemic disorders and infections as well as from other ocular syndromes that cause retinal vasculitis.

The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Eales’ disease will be reviewed here. Retinal vasculitis that occurs in association with systemic disorders, infections, and primary retinal diseases is discussed separately. (See "Retinal vasculitis associated with systemic disorders and infections" and "Retinal vasculitis associated with primary ocular disorders".)


Eales’ disease was described originally in England [1,2] but is observed much more commonly on the Indian subcontinent than in any other region. Eales’ disease has been estimated to occur in 1 of every 135 to 250 patients evaluated at tertiary eye care centers in India [3-5].

A striking male predominance is reported in most series [6,7]. However, in one series from North America, equal numbers of females and males were reported [8]. The mean age at onset in most studies from India is between the age of 20 and 30 years, compared with approximately 40 years in America and Germany [8,9].


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Literature review current through: Sep 2016. | This topic last updated: Apr 22, 2016.
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