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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 8

of 'Drug-induced thrombotic microangiopathy'

Mechanism of quinine-dependent monoclonal antibody binding to platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa.
Bougie DW, Peterson J, Rasmussen M, Aster RH
Blood. 2015 Oct;126(18):2146-52. Epub 2015 Sep 9.
Drug-dependent antibodies (DDAbs) that cause acute thrombocytopenia upon drug exposure are nonreactive in the absence of the drug but bind tightly to a platelet membrane glycoprotein, usuallyα(IIb)/β3 integrin (GPIIb/IIIa) when the drug is present. How a drug promotes binding of antibody to its target is unknown and is difficult to study with human DDAbs, which are poly-specific and in limited supply. We addressed this question using quinine-dependent murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which, in vitro and in vivo, closely mimic antibodies that cause thrombocytopenia in patients sensitive to quinine. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, we found that quinine binds with very high affinity (K(D)≈10⁻⁹mol/L) to these mAbs at a molar ratio of≈2:1 but does not bind detectably to an irrelevant mAb. Also using SPR analysis, GPIIb/IIIa was found to bind monovalently to immobilized mAb with low affinity in the absence of quinine and with fivefold greater affinity (K(D)≈2.2×10⁻⁶) when quinine was present. Measurements of quinine-dependent binding of intact mAb and fragment antigen-binding (Fab) fragments to platelets showed that affinity is increased 10 000- to 100 000-fold by bivalent interaction between antibody and its target. Together, the findings indicate that the first step in drug-dependent binding of a DDAb is the interaction of the drug with antibody, rather than with antigen, as has been widely thought, where it induces structural changes that enhance the affinity/specificity of antibody for its target epitope. Bivalent binding may be essential for a DDAb to cause thrombocytopenia.
Blood Research Institute, BloodCenter of Wisconsin, and.