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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 74

of 'Dosing of anticancer agents in adults'

Sarcopenic obesity: A probable risk factor for dose limiting toxicity during neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in oesophageal cancer patients.
Anandavadivelan P, Brismar TB, Nilsson M, Johar AM, Martin L
Clin Nutr. 2016;35(3):724. Epub 2015 May 27.
BACKGROUND&AIMS: Profound weight loss and malnutrition subsequent to severe dysphagia and cancer cachexia are cardinal symptoms in oesophageal cancer (OC). Low muscle mass/sarcopenia has been linked to toxicity during neo-adjuvant therapy in other cancers, with worser effects in sarcopenic obesity. In this study the association between sarcopenia and/or sarcopenic obesity and dose limiting toxicity (DLT) during cycle one chemotherapy in resectable OC patients was evaluated.
METHODS: Body composition was assessed from computed tomography scans of 72 consecutively diagnosed OC patients. Lean body mass and body fat mass were estimated. Patients were grouped as sarcopenic or non-sarcopenic based on pre-defined gender-specific cut-offs for sarcopenia, and as underweight/normal (BMI < 25) or overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25). Sarcopenic obesity was defined as sarcopenia combined with overweight and obesity. DLT was defined as temporary reduction/delay or permanent discontinuation of drugs due to adverse effects. Odds ratios for developing toxicity were ascertained using multiple logistic regression.
RESULTS: Of 72 patients, 85% (n = 61) were males. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were present in 31 (43%) and 10 (14%), respectively, prior to chemotherapy. Sarcopenic patients had significantly lower adipose tissue index (p = 0.02) compared to non-sarcopenic patients. Patients with DLT (n = 24) had lower skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.04) than those without DLT. Sarcopenic patients (OR = 2.47; 95% CI: 0.88-6.93) showed a trend towards increased DLT risk (p < 0.10). Logistic regression with BMI as an interaction term indicated higher DLT risk in sarcopenic patients with normal BMI (OR = 1.60; 95% CI 0.30-8.40), but was non-significant. In the sarcopenic obese, risk of DLT increased significantly (OR = 5.54; 95% CI 1.12-27.44).
CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenic and sarcopenic obese OC patients may be at a higher risk for developing DLT during chemotherapy compared to non-sarcopenic OC patients.
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: poorna.anandavadivelan@ki.se.