Diseases potentially acquired by travel to West Africa
- David Murdoch, MD, MSc, DTM&H, FRACP, FRCPA, FFSc(RCPA)
David Murdoch, MD, MSc, DTM&H, FRACP, FRCPA, FFSc(RCPA)
- Clinical Microbiologist and Infectious Diseases Physician
- University of Otago, Christchurch
West Africa comprises Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. This region encompasses tropical rain forests in the west and south and desert areas in the north.
Malaria — Malaria is a major risk for most travelers to West Africa . Endemic areas exist in all countries in this region. Except for Cape Verde, Plasmodium falciparum is the predominant cause of malaria, and chloroquine resistance is widespread. Country-specific risk areas are listed below :
●Benin – Risk throughout the year in the whole country
●Burkino Faso – Risk throughout the year in the whole country
●Cape Verde – Limited risk from August through November on Santiago Island and Boa Island
- Boggild AK, Esposito DH, Kozarsky PE, et al. Differential diagnosis of illness in travelers arriving from Sierra Leone, Liberia, or Guinea: a cross-sectional study from the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Ann Intern Med 2015; 162:757.
- World Health Organization. International travel and health. WHO, Geneva 2012.
- Informal Working Group on Geographic Risk of Yellow Fever. Background for the Consultation on Yellow Fever and International Travel, 2010 (update February 2011). World Health Organization, Stockholm, Sweden, 4-5 March 2010.
- Ponce-de-León S, Lisker-Melman M, Kato-Maeda M, et al. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection imported to Mexico from a tourist resort in Kenya. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23:847.
- Pryce D, Behrens R, Davidson R, et al. Onchocerciasis in members of an expedition to Cameroon: role of advice before travel and long term follow up. BMJ 1992; 304:1285.
- Encarnacion CF, Giordano MF, Murray HW. Onchocerciasis in New York City. The Moa-Manhattan connection. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154:1749.
- Mendelson M, Davis XM, Jensenius M, et al. Health risks in travelers to South Africa: the GeoSentinel experience and implications for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2010; 82:991.
- Parola P. Rickettsioses in sub-Saharan Africa. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006; 1078:42.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chikungunya virus - Geographic Distribution. http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/geo/index.html (Accessed on April 14, 2016).
- MACNAMARA FN. Zika virus: a report on three cases of human infection during an epidemic of jaundice in Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1954; 48:139.
- Fagbami AH. Zika virus infections in Nigeria: virological and seroepidemiological investigations in Oyo State. J Hyg (Lond) 1979; 83:213.
- Saluzzo JF, Gonzalez JP, Hervé JP, Georges AJ. [Serological survey for the prevalence of certain arboviruses in the human population of the south-east area of Central African Republic (author's transl)]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 1981; 74:490.
- Adekolu-John EO, Fagbami AH. Arthropod-borne virus antibodies in sera of residents of Kainji Lake Basin, Nigeria 1980. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1983; 77:149.
- Diallo D, Sall AA, Diagne CT, et al. Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in southeastern Senegal, 2011. PLoS One 2014; 9:e109442.
- Steffen R. Epidemiology of traveler's diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41 Suppl 8:S536.
- Rioche M, Dubreuil P, Kouassi-Samgare A, et al. [Incidence of sporadic hepatitis E in Ivory Coast based on still problematic serology]. Bull World Health Organ 1997; 75:349.
- Conclusions and recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Poliomyelitis eradication, Geneva, 11-12 October 2006, Part I. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2006; 81:453.
- Jelinek T, Nothdurft HD, Löscher T. Schistosomiasis in Travelers and Expatriates. J Travel Med 1996; 3:160.
- Eng TR, O'Brien TR, Bernard KW, et al. HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infections Among U.S. Peace Corps Volunteers Returning from West Africa. J Travel Med 1995; 2:174.
- Cleaveland S. Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene meeting at Manson House, London, 20 March 1997. Epidemiology and control of rabies. The growing problem of rabies in Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1998; 92:131.
- Faye O, Diallo M, Diop D, et al. Rift Valley fever outbreak with East-Central African virus lineage in Mauritania, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis 2007; 13:1016.
- Boushab BM, Fall-Malick FZ, Ould Baba SE, et al. Severe Human Illness Caused by Rift Valley Fever Virus in Mauritania, 2015. Open Forum Infect Dis 2016; 3:ofw200.
- ARTHROPOD-BORNE DISEASES
- Yellow fever
- African trypanosomiasis
- Chikungunya fever
- Zika virus
- FOODBORNE AND WATERBORNE DISEASES
- Travelers' diarrhea
- Hepatitis A and E
- OTHER INFECTIONS
- Meningococcal disease
- HIV infection
- Other sexually transmitted diseases
- Hepatitis B and C
- Viral hemorrhagic fever
- - Ebola virus
- - Lassa fever
- - Rift Valley fever
- - Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
- OTHER HAZARDS
- Snake bites
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS