Diseases potentially acquired by travel to South Asia
- David Murdoch, MD, MSc, DTM&H, FRACP, FRCPA, FFSc(RCPA)
David Murdoch, MD, MSc, DTM&H, FRACP, FRCPA, FFSc(RCPA)
- Clinical Microbiologist and Infectious Diseases Physician
- University of Otago, Christchurch
Countries within this region are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. This is a region of diverse geography, including high mountains, deserts, flood plains, forests, tropical beaches, and large urban/peri-urban areas. Many areas in South Asia are popular destinations for travelers.
Malaria — Malaria-endemic areas exist in all countries in this region except the Maldives. The transmission risk varies considerably within endemic areas, and transmission occurs in many cities within the Indian subcontinent. Country-specific risk areas are as follows:
●Afghanistan – Risk from May through November at altitudes below 2000 meters.
●Bangladesh – Risk throughout the year in 13 of 64 districts, but transmission occurs only in rural areas. The risk is high in Chittagong Hill Tract districts (Bandarban, Rangamati, and Khagrachari), Chittagong district, and Cox Bazaar district, and the risk is low in Hobigonj, Kurigram, Moulvibazar, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Sherpur, Sunamgonj, and Sylhet. There is no risk in Dhaka City.
●Bhutan – Risk exists in the southern belt of seven districts: Chukha, Dagana, Pemagatshel, Samdrup Jongkhar, Samtse, Sarpang, and Zhemgang. No transmission occurs in Bumthang, Gasa, Paro, and Thimphu.
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- ARTHROPOD-BORNE DISEASES
- Dengue fever
- Japanese encephalitis
- Chikungunya fever
- Yellow fever
- FOODBORNE AND WATERBORNE DISEASES
- Travelers' diarrhea
- Enteric (typhoid) fever
- Hepatitis A and E
- OTHER INFECTIONS
- HIV infection
- Other sexually transmitted diseases
- Hepatitis B and C
- Meningococcal disease
- OTHER HAZARDS
- Motor vehicle accidents
- Snake bites
- Marine hazards
- High-altitude disease