Differentiated thyroid cancer: Clinicopathologic staging
- R Michael Tuttle, MD
R Michael Tuttle, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Clinicopathologic staging of patients with cancer is valuable for many reasons, including the following:
●To estimate risk of recurrence and disease-specific mortality for an individual patient
●To tailor decisions regarding postoperative adjunctive therapy (such as the need for radioiodine [RAI] ablation and degree of thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] suppression) to the patient's risk for disease recurrence and mortality
●To make decisions regarding the frequency, modality, and intensity of follow-up based upon an individual patient's risk of recurrence and mortality
●To enable accurate communication regarding a patient among health care professionals
- Tuttle RM, Morris LF, Haughen BR, et al. Thyroid - Differentiated and Anaplastic Carcinoma. In: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 8th, Amin MB (Ed), Springer, New York 2017. p.873.
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- Tuttle RM, Tala H, Shah J, et al. Estimating risk of recurrence in differentiated thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine remnant ablation: using response to therapy variables to modify the initial risk estimates predicted by the new American Thyroid Association staging system. Thyroid 2010; 20:1341.
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- Tuttle RM Md, Haugen BR Md, Perrier N. The Updated AJCC/TNM Staging System for Differentiated and Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer (8th edition): What changed and why? Thyroid 2017.
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- Vaisman F, Tala H, Grewal R, Tuttle RM. In differentiated thyroid cancer, an incomplete structural response to therapy is associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes than only an incomplete thyroglobulin response. Thyroid 2011; 21:1317.
- Vaisman F, Shaha A, Fish S, Michael Tuttle R. Initial therapy with either thyroid lobectomy or total thyroidectomy without radioactive iodine remnant ablation is associated with very low rates of structural disease recurrence in properly selected patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2011; 75:112.
- Pitoia F, Bueno F, Urciuoli C, et al. Outcomes of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer risk-stratified according to the American thyroid association and Latin American thyroid society risk of recurrence classification systems. Thyroid 2013; 23:1401.
- Tuttle RM, Leboeuf R. Follow up approaches in thyroid cancer: a risk adapted paradigm. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2008; 37:419.
- Momesso DP, Tuttle RM. Update on differentiated thyroid cancer staging. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2014; 43:401.
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- Ghossein RA, Leboeuf R, Patel KN, et al. Tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma without extrathyroid extension: biologic behavior and clinical implications. Thyroid 2007; 17:655.
- Hiltzik D, Carlson DL, Tuttle RM, et al. Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas defined on the basis of mitosis and necrosis: a clinicopathologic study of 58 patients. Cancer 2006; 106:1286.
- STAGING FOR DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER
- Staging systems for predicting disease-specific mortality
- - TNM system
- - MACIS system
- - National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study
- Staging systems used to predict initial risk of recurrence
- - ATA risk stratification
- Dynamic risk stratification
- OTHER PROGNOSTIC FACTORS
- Lymphocytic infiltration
- PET-positive tumors
- Histologic subtypes
- Molecular characteristics
- SOCIETY GUIDELINE LINKS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS