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Dietary recommendations for patients with nondialysis CKD

Monique E Cho, MD
Srinivasan Beddhu, MD
Section Editor
Gary C Curhan, MD, ScD
Deputy Editor
Alice M Sheridan, MD


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in the United States and worldwide. CKD patients have a higher mortality than the general population [1]. Mortality is related in part to the progression of kidney disease and its complications, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and protein-energy wasting.

Dietary factors may have an effect on the progression of kidney disease and its complications. Among CKD patients, overnutrition results in sodium and volume overload, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and accumulation of toxic metabolites of protein degradation. Undernutrition, on the other hand, exacerbates the risk for malnutrition and wasting.

Appropriate dietary interventions may have an effect on clinical outcomes in the CKD population. However, the optimal approach to nutrition is not known with certainty, and clinical trials have yielded conflicting results.

This topic review provides recommendations for nutrition for predialysis CKD patients. Recommendations for nutrition in the general public are discussed elsewhere. (See "Dietary assessment in adults" and "Geriatric nutrition: Nutritional issues in older adults".)

The approach to nutrition in dialysis patients is discussed elsewhere. (See "Assessment of nutritional status in end-stage renal disease" and "Nutritional status and protein intake in peritoneal dialysis patients".)


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Literature review current through: Sep 2016. | This topic last updated: Sep 30, 2016.
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