Dietary history and recommended dietary intake in children
- Sarah M Phillips, MS, RD, LD
Sarah M Phillips, MS, RD, LD
- Instructor of Pediatric Gastroenterology
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Craig Jensen, MD
Craig Jensen, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Gastroenterology
- Associate Professor
- Baylor College of Medicine
The goal of nutritional assessment in childhood is to identify and prevent nutritional disorders such as malnutrition and overweight, as well as the increased morbidity and mortality that accompany them. To meet this goal, pediatric clinicians must know the normal and abnormal patterns of growth and the changes in body composition that occur during childhood and adolescence, and must understand the risk factors for overweight and malnutrition. In addition, they must be able to accurately perform and interpret the results of the nutritional evaluation.
Nutritional assessment is the quantitative evaluation of nutritional status. A comprehensive nutritional assessment has six components:
●Dietary history, with comparison to recommended intakes
●Medical and medication history
- Committee on Nutrition American Academy of Pediatrics. Formula feeding of term infants. In: Pediatric Nutrition Handbook, 6, Kleinman RE (Ed), American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village 2009. p.61.
- Misra M, Pacaud D, Petryk A, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations. Pediatrics 2008; 122:398.
- Choe YH, Lee JE, Moon KB, et al. The infrequent bowel movements in young infants who are exclusively breast-fed. Eur J Pediatr 2004; 163:630.
- Weaver CM, Rothwell AP, Wood KV. Measuring calcium absorption and utilization in humans. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2006; 9:568.
- World Health Organization growth charts, birth to 24 months. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/who_charts.htm#The WHO Growth Charts (Accessed on September 08, 2016).
- Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, et al. Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants from 0 to 18 months: the DARLING Study. Pediatrics 1992; 89:1035.
- Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Lönnerdal B. Adequacy of energy intake among breast-fed infants in the DARLING study: relationships to growth velocity, morbidity, and activity levels. Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition and Growth. J Pediatr 1991; 119:538.
- Hediger ML, Overpeck MD, Ruan WJ, Troendle JF. Early infant feeding and growth status of US-born infants and children aged 4-71 mo: analyses from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72:159.
- Dewey KG, Peerson JM, Brown KH, et al. Growth of breast-fed infants deviates from current reference data: a pooled analysis of US, Canadian, and European data sets. World Health Organization Working Group on Infant Growth. Pediatrics 1995; 96:495.
- Dewey KG. Growth patterns of breastfed infants and the current status of growth charts for infants. J Hum Lact 1998; 14:89.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations University (UNU): Human Energy Requirements. Chapter 3: Energy requirements of infants from birth to 12 months. Available at: www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5686e/y5686e05.htm (Accessed on January 21, 2013).
- Energy and protein requirements: Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation. World Health Organization; Geneva, 1985.
- A Reference Case: The RENO Diet-Heart Study. In: Obesity Assessment Tools, Methods, Interpretations, St. Jeor ST (Ed), Chapman and Hall, New York 1997.
- Field AE, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL, et al. Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire among fourth to seventh grade inner-city school children: implications of age and day-to-day variation in dietary intake. Public Health Nutr 1999; 2:293.
- Smith MM, Lifshitz F. Excess fruit juice consumption as a contributing factor in nonorganic failure to thrive. Pediatrics 1994; 93:438.
- Food and nutrition information center, Dietary Reference Intake Reports. Available at: https://fnic.nal.usda.gov/dietary-guidance/dietary-reference-intakes/dri-nutrient-reports (Accessed on September 21, 2016).
- Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW. Dietary Reference Intakes: the new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 1998; 98:699.
- Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. National Academies Press, 2000. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9956&page=R1 (Accessed on March 02, 2011).
- Kennedy E, Goldberg J. What are American children eating? Implications for public policy. Nutr Rev 1995; 53:111.
- Levine M, Rumsey SC, Daruwala R, et al. Criteria and recommendations for vitamin C intake. JAMA 1999; 281:1415.
- Bailey LB. Dietary reference intakes for folate: the debut of dietary folate equivalents. Nutr Rev 1998; 56:294.
- Food and Nutrition Board. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10, National Academy Press, Washington DC 1989.
- United States Department of Agriculture, Daily food plan. Available at: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/myplate/index.aspx (Accessed on June 07, 2011).
- American Heart Association website, available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/Fiber-and-Childrens-Diets_UCM_305981_Article.jsp.
- Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Expert panel on integrated guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children and adolescents: summary report. Pediatrics 2011; 128 Suppl 5:S213.
- Dwyer JT. Dietary fiber for children: how much? Pediatrics 1995; 96:1019.
- Parikh S, Pollock NK, Bhagatwala J, et al. Adolescent fiber consumption is associated with visceral fat and inflammatory markers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97:E1451.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015 – 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. December 2015. Available at: http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/ (Accessed on January 09, 2016).
- United States Department of Agriculture, "Choose my plate." Available at: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/ (Accessed on October 07, 2015).
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration, labeling and nutrition information. How to understand and use the Nutrition Facts Label. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/LabelingNutrition/ConsumerInformation/ucm078889.htm.
- DIETARY HISTORY
- - Breastfed infants
- - Formula-fed infants
- - Dietary recall
- - Dietary diary
- TERMINOLOGY FOR DIETARY STANDARDS
- Daily Values (DVs)
- Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
- OVERVIEW OF DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS
- Energy needs
- Dietary composition
- - Fat, carbohydrates and protein
- - Fiber
- - Vitamins and minerals
- EDUCATIONAL TOOLS
- Choose my plate
- Food labels
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS