Diagnostic testing for toxoplasmosis infection
- Joseph D Schwartzman, MD
Joseph D Schwartzman, MD
- Professor of Pathology
- Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center
- Eskild Petersen, MD, DMSc, DTM&H
Eskild Petersen, MD, DMSc, DTM&H
- Associate Professor, Consultant
- Specialist of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine
- Department of Infectious Diseases
- Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Denmark
Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Infection in humans most commonly occurs through the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat that contains tissue cysts, through ingestion of water or food contaminated with oocysts, or congenitally through transplacental transmission from a mother who acquired infection during pregnancy.
Laboratory testing is usually necessary to establish the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis because the clinical manifestations of infection are so protean. The diagnostic methodology requires careful consideration based on the patient’s clinical presentation. Available diagnostic modalities for T. gondii include serologic assays, molecular-based techniques (eg, polymerase chain reaction-based assays), and histopathology.
This topic will address diagnostic techniques for toxoplasmosis in the immunocompetent and immunocompromised adult. Additional topic reviews that discuss toxoplasmosis include:
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- APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS
- SEROLOGIC TESTING
- Diagnosing acute infection
- - Initial tests
- - Interpretation of initial results
- - Additional testing
- Confirmatory IgM testing
- Avidity testing
- Reactivation infection
- POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAYS
- TISSUE CULTURE
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS