During the past few decades, opportunistic fungal pathogens have become increasingly recognized as a cause of infection in severely ill or immunocompromised patients [1,2]. Although Aspergillus species remains the most common mold to cause invasive infection, other pathogens, such as Scedosporium, are becoming more common [1-3]. Two members of this genus, Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans, are considered major human pathogens .
This topic will discuss the diagnosis and treatment of Scedosporium infections. The epidemiology, mycology, and clinical manifestations of Scedosporium infections are discussed elsewhere. (See "Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Scedosporium infection".) Other emerging fungal infections are discussed elsewhere. (See "Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Penicillium marneffei infection" and "Mycology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of Fusarium infection".)
Invasive fungal infection has been defined in accordance with certain criteria proposed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group (EORTC) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (NIAID/MSG) . Proven mold infection is defined as:
●Histopathologic examination revealing tissue invasion and a culture result positive for mold.