Diagnosis and treatment of delayed puberty
- William F Crowley, Jr, MD
William F Crowley, Jr, MD
- Section Editor — Female Reproductive Endocrinology
- Daniel K. Podolsky Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- Nelly Pitteloud, MD
Nelly Pitteloud, MD
- Professor in Medicine
- Lausanne University Switzerland
- Section Editors
- Peter J Snyder, MD
Peter J Snyder, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Endocrinology
- Section Editor — Pituitary Disease
- Section Editor — Male Reproductive Endocrinology
- Professor of Medicine
- University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
- Amy B Middleman, MD, MPH, MS Ed
Amy B Middleman, MD, MPH, MS Ed
- Section Editor — Adolescent Medicine
- Professor of Pediatrics, Chief of Adolescent Medicine
- University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
- Mitchell Geffner, MD
Mitchell Geffner, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Endocrinology
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California
Delayed puberty is defined clinically by the absence or incomplete development of secondary sexual characteristics bounded by an age at which 95 percent of children of that sex and culture have initiated sexual maturation. The clinical staging of puberty is performed by the criteria established by James Tanner. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, the upper 95th percentile in the United States for age for boys is 14 (ie, an increase in testicular size being the first sign) and for girls is 12 (breast development being the first sign) (table 1). (See "Normal puberty".)
Delayed puberty usually results from inadequate gonadal steroid secretion which, in turn, is most often caused by a defective gonadotropin secretion from the anterior pituitary, due to defective production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus, the key functional defect in patients with constitutional delay of puberty. It can, however, also be caused by a variety of hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal disorders. (See "Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of primary amenorrhea".)
PRIMARY VERSUS SECONDARY HYPOGONADISM
Dating back to the time of Fuller Albright and his colleagues, it has been useful to classify the syndrome pathophysiologically according to the circulating levels of the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (table 2):
●High serum concentrations of LH and FSH are associated with various causes of gonadal disease, called primary hypogonadism and/or defects in their receptors on the membrane of the gonadal cells. (See "Causes of primary hypogonadism in males" and "Pathogenesis and causes of spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (premature ovarian failure)".)
●Low or normal serum LH and FSH concentrations are associated with various causes of diminished GnRH-induced gonadotropin secretion, called secondary hypogonadism. This defect can be because of hypothalamic dysfunction (either anatomic or functional), hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, or hyperprolactinemia. (See "Causes of secondary hypogonadism in males".)
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- PRIMARY VERSUS SECONDARY HYPOGONADISM
- Physical examination
- Imaging studies
- Laboratory testing
- - General evaluation
- - Hormonal tests
- - Additional tests
- General principles
- Testosterone therapy
- Estrogen therapy
- Growth hormone therapy
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS