Detailed neurologic assessment of infants and children
- Suresh Kotagal, MD
Suresh Kotagal, MD
- Professor of Neurology, Mayo Clinic
- Consultant in Neurology, Pediatrics, and Sleep Medicine
Children who present with or who are found to have neurologic or neuromuscular abnormalities on a general physical examination should undergo a complete neurologic assessment [1,2]. The elements of a complete neurological assessment are:
●Focused clinical history
●Detailed neurological examination
●Additional parts of the general physical examination that are relevant to child neurology
In some cases, developmental screening tests are also helpful.
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- THE CASE HISTORY
- History of present illness
- Allergy history
- Family history
- Pregnancy, perinatal, and neonatal history
- Developmental history
- Review of other systems
- NEUROLOGIC EXAMINATION
- General concepts
- Higher cortical functions
- Cranial nerves
- - I (olfactory)
- - II (optic)
- - III (oculomotor), IV (trochlear), and VI (abducens)
- - V (trigeminal)
- - VII (facial)
- - VIII (vestibulocochlear)
- - IX (glossopharyngeal) and X (vagus)
- - XI (spinal accessory)
- - XII (hypoglossal)
- Motor system
- - Posture and movements
- - Tone and strength
- - Coordination
- Sensory system
- Tendon reflexes
- Developmental reflexes
- Superficial reflexes
- ELEMENTS OF THE GENERAL PHYSICAL EXAMINATION RELEVANT TO CHILD NEUROLOGY
- Dysmorphic features
- Skin examination
- External genitalia
- Abnormal hair
- Abnormal breath
- DEVELOPMENTAL SCREENING TESTS