UpToDate
Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2016 UpToDate®

Delivery of the preterm low birth weight singleton fetus

Authors
Jane Cleary-Goldman, MD
Julian N Robinson, MD
Section Editor
Charles J Lockwood, MD, MHCM
Deputy Editor
Vanessa A Barss, MD, FACOG

INTRODUCTION

Delivery of the preterm low birth weight (LBW) fetus is often necessitated by maternal and fetal indications, including nonreassuring fetal status, intractable preterm labor, intraamniotic infection, placental abruption, placental insufficiency, hypertensive disorders, and other maternal factors (see individual topic reviews on these subjects). The prognosis for survival and long-term outcomes of these neonates continues to improve and can be attributed, in part, to widespread use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk for preterm birth, liberal use of cesarean delivery for fetal indications, improvements in neonatal resuscitation, use of surfactant therapy, magnesium sulfate prophylaxis, and delivery at facilities with personnel experienced in neonatal intensive care. (See "Incidence and mortality of the preterm infant".)

DEFINITION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

Low birth weight neonates are subgrouped according to the degree of smallness at the first weight determination after birth [1]:

Low birth weight (LBW): less than 2500 grams

Very low birth weight (VLBW): less than 1500 grams

Extremely low birth weight (ELBW): less than 1000 grams

            

Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Tue Jun 07 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc.
References
Top
  1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Perinatal care at the threshold of viability. ACOG Practice Bulletin #38. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Washington DC 2002.
  2. Anderson GD, Bada HS, Sibai BM, et al. The relationship between labor and route of delivery in the preterm infant. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 158:1382.
  3. Shaver DC, Bada HS, Korones SB, et al. Early and late intraventricular hemorrhage: the role of obstetric factors. Obstet Gynecol 1992; 80:831.
  4. Wadhawan R, Vohr BR, Fanaroff AA, et al. Does labor influence neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely-low-birth-weight infants who are born by cesarean delivery? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189:501.
  5. Alfirevic Z, Milan SJ, Livio S. Caesarean section versus vaginal delivery for preterm birth in singletons. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; :CD000078.
  6. O'Callaghan M, MacLennan A. Cesarean delivery and cerebral palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2013; 122:1169.
  7. Barrett JM, Boehm FH, Vaughn WK. The effect of type of delivery on neonatal outcome in singleton infants of birth weight of 1,000 g or less. JAMA 1983; 250:625.
  8. Malloy MH, Onstad L, Wright E. The effect of cesarean delivery on birth outcome in very low birth weight infants. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Obstet Gynecol 1991; 77:498.
  9. Jonas HA, Lumley JM. The effect of mode of delivery on neonatal mortality in very low birthweight infants born in Victoria, Australia: Caesarean section is associated with increased survival in breech-presenting, but not vertex-presenting, infants. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1997; 11:181.
  10. Riskin A, Riskin-Mashiah S, Lusky A, et al. The relationship between delivery mode and mortality in very low birthweight singleton vertex-presenting infants. BJOG 2004; 111:1365.
  11. Reddy UM, Zhang J, Sun L, et al. Neonatal mortality by attempted route of delivery in early preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2012; 207:117.e1.
  12. Lee HC, Gould JB. Survival rates and mode of delivery for vertex preterm neonates according to small- or appropriate-for-gestational-age status. Pediatrics 2006; 118:e1836.
  13. Deulofeut R, Sola A, Lee B, et al. The impact of vaginal delivery in premature infants weighing less than 1,251 grams. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 105:525.
  14. Wylie BJ, Davidson LL, Batra M, Reed SD. Method of delivery and neonatal outcome in very low-birthweight vertex-presenting fetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 198:640.e1.
  15. Batton B, Burnett C, Verhulst S, Batton D. Extremely preterm infant mortality rates and cesarean deliveries in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 2011; 118:43.
  16. Riskin A, Riskin-Mashiah S, Bader D, et al. Delivery mode and severe intraventricular hemorrhage in single, very low birth weight, vertex infants. Obstet Gynecol 2008; 112:21.
  17. Cetinkaya SE, Okulu E, Soylemez F, et al. Perinatal risk factors and mode of delivery associated with mortality in very low birth weight infants. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014; :1.
  18. Zhu JJ, Bao YY, Zhang GL, et al. No relationship between mode of delivery and neonatal mortality and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants aged two years. World J Pediatr 2014; 10:227.
  19. Malek-Mellouli M, Ben Amara F, Gallouz N, et al. Does the mode of delivery affect neonatal morbidity and mortality in very low-birth-weight infants ? Tunis Med 2013; 91:183.
  20. Haque KN, Hayes AM, Ahmed Z, et al. Caesarean or vaginal delivery for preterm very-low-birth weight (< or =1,250 g) infant: experience from a district general hospital in UK. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2008; 277:207.
  21. Bauer J, Hentschel R, Zahradnik H, et al. Vaginal delivery and neonatal outcome in extremely-low-birth-weight infants below 26 weeks of gestational age. Am J Perinatol 2003; 20:181.
  22. Ogawa M, Matsuda Y, Kanda E, et al. Survival rate of extremely low birth weight infants and its risk factors: case-control study in Japan. ISRN Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2013:873563.
  23. Chen Y, Li G, Ruan Y, et al. An epidemiological survey on low birth weight infants in China and analysis of outcomes of full-term low birth weight infants. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2013; 13:242.
  24. Chen PC, Wang PW, Fang LJ. Prognostic predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome or mortality in very-low-birth-weight infants. Acta Paediatr Taiwan 2005; 46:196.
  25. Običan SG, Small A, Smith D, et al. Mode of delivery at periviability and early childhood neurodevelopment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015; 213:578.e1.
  26. Malloy MH. Impact of cesarean section on neonatal mortality rates among very preterm infants in the United States, 2000-2003. Pediatrics 2008; 122:285.
  27. Lannon SM, Guthrie KA, Vanderhoeven JP, Gammill HS. Uterine rupture risk after periviable cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2015; 125:1095.
  28. Reddy UM, Rice MM, Grobman WA, et al. Serious maternal complications after early preterm delivery (24-33 weeks' gestation). Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015; 213:538.e1.
  29. Tejani N, Verma U, Hameed C, Chayen B. Method and route of delivery in the low birth weight vertex presentation correlated with early periventricular/intraventricular hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol 1987; 69:1.
  30. Welch RA, Bottoms SF. Reconsideration of head compression and intraventricular hemorrhage in the vertex very-low-birth-weight fetus. Obstet Gynecol 1986; 68:29.
  31. Lasswell SM, Barfield WD, Rochat RW, Blackmon L. Perinatal regionalization for very low-birth-weight and very preterm infants: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2010; 304:992.
  32. Mathews TJ, Menacker F, MacDorman MF. Infant mortality statistics from the 2000 period linked birth/infant death data set. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2002; 50:1.
  33. Park MI, Hwang JH, Cha KJ, et al. Computerized analysis of fetal heart rate parameters by gestational age. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2001; 74:157.
  34. Sorokin Y, Dierker LJ, Pillay SK, et al. The association between fetal heart rate patterns and fetal movements in pregnancies between 20 and 30 weeks' gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982; 143:243.
  35. Smith JH, Dawes GS, Redman CW. Low human fetal heart rate variation in normal pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1987; 94:656.
  36. Druzin ML, Hutson JM, Edersheim TG. Relationship of baseline fetal heart rate to gestational age and fetal sex. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 154:1102.
  37. Afors K, Chandraharan E. Use of continuous electronic fetal monitoring in a preterm fetus: clinical dilemmas and recommendations for practice. J Pregnancy 2011; 2011:848794.
  38. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf2/P020001c.pdf.
  39. Laudenbach V, Mercier FJ, Rozé JC, et al. Anaesthesia mode for caesarean section and mortality in very preterm infants: an epidemiologic study in the EPIPAGE cohort. Int J Obstet Anesth 2009; 18:142.
  40. de Crespigny LC, Robinson HP. Can obstetricians prevent neonatal intraventricular haemorrhage? Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1983; 23:146.
  41. Lobb MO, Duthie SJ, Cooke RW. The influence of episiotomy on the neonatal survival and incidence of periventricular haemorrhage in very-low-birth-weight infants. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1986; 22:17.
  42. The TG. Is routine episiotomy beneficial in the low birth weight delivery? Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1990; 31:135.
  43. Backes CH, Rivera BK, Haque U, et al. Placental transfusion strategies in very preterm neonates: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2014; 124:47.
  44. ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice Timing of Umbilical Cord Clamping After Birth, Number 543, December 2012.
  45. Rabe H, Diaz-Rossello JL, Duley L, Dowswell T. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping and other strategies to influence placental transfusion at preterm birth on maternal and infant outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; :CD003248.
  46. Osmundson SS, Garabedian MJ, Yeaton-Massey A, Lyell DJ. Risk factors for classical hysterotomy in twin pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 2015; 125:643.
  47. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal–Fetal Medicine, Ecker JL, Kaimal A, et al. #3: Periviable birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015; 213:604.
  48. Obstetric Care Consensus No. 4: Periviable Birth. Obstet Gynecol 2016; 127:e157.