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Cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy

Authors
Jeanne S Sheffield, MD
Suresh B Boppana, MD
Section Editors
Louise Wilkins-Haug, MD, PhD
Martin S Hirsch, MD
Deputy Editor
Vanessa A Barss, MD, FACOG

INTRODUCTION

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous DNA herpesvirus and the most common congenital viral infection, with birth prevalence of 0.48 to 1.3 percent in recent decades [1-4]. Congenital infection may be asymptomatic or symptomatic; symptomatic disease can be severe and life-threatening. Both asymptomatic and symptomatic newborns are at risk of developing long-term neurodevelopmental morbidity, particularly deafness.

This topic will discuss issues specific to CMV in pregnant and breastfeeding women. CMV infections in other populations are reviewed separately.

MATERNAL CMV INFECTION

Routes of transmission — Maternal acquisition of CMV infection can occur via multiple routes, including close nonsexual contact (including household and occupational exposure), sexual exposure, transfusion, and organ transplant. CMV has been cultured from multiple body fluids, including urine, saliva, blood, nasopharyngeal secretions, tears, cervical and vaginal secretions, semen, and breast milk. (See "Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompetent adults", section on 'Transmission'.)

Seroprevalence — CMV infection is common: An epidemiologic study in the United States demonstrated seropositivity in approximately 58 percent of young women aged 15 to 44 years [3]. Seroprevalence increases with age, ranging from 50 to 100 percent, and varies by geographic residence, ethnicity, and socioeconomic factors [1-3]. The following characteristics are predictive of positive CMV serology:

Lower socioeconomic strata.

                                        

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Tue Nov 01 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
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