Continuous oxygen delivery systems for infants, children, and adults
- Susan B Torrey, MD
Susan B Torrey, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Resuscitation; Pediatric Trauma
- Director, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics (Clinical)
- NYU School of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Anne M Stack, MD
Anne M Stack, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Procedures
- Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- Polly E Parsons, MD
Polly E Parsons, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine
- Section Editor — Critical Care
- Professor of Medicine
- University of Vermont College of Medicine
- Deputy Editor
- James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
- Senior Deputy Editor — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Senior Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
- Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine/Traumatology
- University of Connecticut School of Medicine
Rapid and effective oxygen delivery is an essential component of the care of critically ill or injured patients. A variety of systems are available to deliver oxygen to spontaneously breathing patients. Factors that influence the appropriate choice for any given situation include the dose of oxygen required and how well the patient tolerates the device. For patients who require assisted ventilation, oxygen can be delivered with either a self-inflating or flow-inflating ventilation bag.
This topic will review various devices that are available to continuously deliver oxygen to spontaneously breathing infants, children, and adults. The amount of oxygen that each continuous system can deliver and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.
Oxygen conserving devices (eg, Oxymizer, Helios, or Invacare-Venture), oxygen therapy for newborns, indications for long-term oxygen supplementation, the use of oxygen in hypercapnic patients, issues regarding oxygen therapy during air travel, and basic airway management are discussed separately:
- Medical oxygen. National Fire Protection Association. http://www.nfpa.org/safety-information/for-consumers/causes/medical-oxygen (Accessed on February 25, 2014).
- Feeley TW, Bancroft ML, Brooks RA, Hedley-Whyte J. Potential hazards of compressed gas cylinders: a review. Anesthesiology 1978; 48:72.
- Davies P, Cheng D, Fox A, Lee L. The efficacy of noncontact oxygen delivery methods. Pediatrics 2002; 110:964.
- Amar D, Brodman LE, Winikoff SA, Hollinger I. An alternative oxygen delivery system for infants and children in the post-anaesthesia care unit. Can J Anaesth 1991; 38:49.
- Kumar RM, Kabra SK, Singh M. Efficacy and acceptability of different modes of oxygen administration in children: implications for a community hospital. J Trop Pediatr 1997; 43:47.
- Carter BG, Fairbank B, Tibballs J, et al. Oxygen delivery using self-inflating resuscitation bags. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2005; 6:125.
- Bateman NT, Leach RM. ABC of oxygen. Acute oxygen therapy. BMJ 1998; 317:798.
- Bazuaye EA, Stone TN, Corris PA, Gibson GJ. Variability of inspired oxygen concentration with nasal cannulas. Thorax 1992; 47:609.
- Locke RG, Wolfson MR, Shaffer TH, et al. Inadvertent administration of positive end-distending pressure during nasal cannula flow. Pediatrics 1993; 91:135.
- Myers TR, American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC). AARC Clinical Practice Guideline: selection of an oxygen delivery device for neonatal and pediatric patients--2002 revision & update. Respir Care 2002; 47:707.
- Lee JH, Rehder KJ, Williford L, et al. Use of high flow nasal cannula in critically ill infants, children, and adults: a critical review of the literature. Intensive Care Med 2013; 39:247.
- Nishimura M. High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in adults. J Intensive Care 2015; 3:15.
- Hutchings FA, Hilliard TN, Davis PJ. Heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula therapy in children. Arch Dis Child 2015; 100:571.
- Frat JP, Thille AW, Mercat A, et al. High-flow oxygen through nasal cannula in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 2015; 372:2185.
- Matthay MA. Saving lives with high-flow nasal oxygen. N Engl J Med 2015; 372:2225.
- Beecroft JM, Hanly PJ. Comparison of the OxyMask and Venturi mask in the delivery of supplemental oxygen: pilot study in oxygen-dependent patients. Can Respir J 2006; 13:247.
- Milross J, Young IH, Donnelly P. The oxygen delivery characteristics of the Hudson Oxy-one face mask. Anaesth Intensive Care 1989; 17:180.
- Jensen AG, Johnson A, Sandstedt S. Rebreathing during oxygen treatment with face mask. The effect of oxygen flow rates on ventilation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1991; 35:289.
- King BR, King C, Coates WC. Critical procedures. In: APLS: The Pediatric Emergency Medicine Resource, 4th, Gausche-Hill M, Fuchs S, Yamamoto L (Eds), Jones and Bartlett, Sudbury 2004. p.686.
- Shapiro BA, Harrison RA, Kacmarek RM, Cane RD. Oxygen therapy. In: Clinical Application of Respiratory Care, Year Book Medical, Chicago 1985. p.176.
- Ludwig S. Resuscitation: Pediatric basic and advanced life support. In: Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Fleisher GR, Ludwig S (Eds), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 1993. p.3.
- Boumphrey SM, Morris EA, Kinsella SM. 100% inspired oxygen from a Hudson mask-a realistic goal? Resuscitation 2003; 57:69.
- Scarfone RJ. Airway adjuncts, oxygen delivery, and suctioning of the upper airway. In: Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Procedures, Henretig FM, King C (Eds), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia 1997. p.101.
- Thompson AE. Pediatric airway management. In: Pediatric Critical Care, 3rd, Fuhman BP, Zimmerman J (Eds), Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia 2006. p.485.
- Mondolfi AA, Grenier BM, Thompson JE, Bachur RG. Comparison of self-inflating bags with anesthesia bags for bag-mask ventilation in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care 1997; 13:312.