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Congenital anomalies of the ear

Glenn C Isaacson, MD, FAAP
Section Editors
Anna H Messner, MD
Helen V Firth, DM, FRCP, DCH
Deputy Editor
Carrie Armsby, MD, MPH


Congenital anomalies result from errors in embryogenesis (malformations) or intrauterine events that affect embryonic and fetal growth (deformations and disruptions) [1]. The more complex the formation of a structure, the more opportunities for malformation.

The embryology, clinical features, and management of congenital anomalies of the ear are reviewed here. Many of these abnormalities are associated with hearing loss. The evaluation and management of hearing loss in children in discussed separately:

(See "Screening the newborn for hearing loss".)

(See "Hearing impairment in children: Etiology".)

(See "Hearing impairment in children: Evaluation".)

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Literature review current through: Dec 2017. | This topic last updated: Oct 27, 2017.
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