Compound fetal presentation
- William H Barth, Jr, MD
William H Barth, Jr, MD
- Associate Professor
- Harvard Medical School
Compound presentation is a fetal presentation in which an extremity presents alongside the part of the fetus closest to the birth canal. The majority of compound presentations consist of a fetal hand or arm presenting with the vertex . This topic will review the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of this uncommon intrapartum problem.
Compound presentation complicates from 1 in 268 to 1 in 1000 deliveries [2,3].
PATHOGENESIS AND RISK FACTORS
A variety of clinical settings can lead to compound presentation via different pathways.
●A fetal extremity has room to descend when the fetus does not fully occupy the pelvis because of prematurity, multiple gestation, polyhydramnios, or a large maternal pelvis relative to fetal size [2,3].
●Flow of amniotic fluid after rupture of membranes when the presenting part is still high can carry a fetal extremity, umbilical cord, or both toward the birth canal.To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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