Complications of nephrotic syndrome in children
- Patrick Niaudet, MD
Patrick Niaudet, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Nephrology
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France
The nephrotic syndrome is caused by renal diseases that increase the permeability across the glomerular filtration barrier. It is classically characterized by four features, but the first two are used diagnostically because the last two may not be seen in all patients:
●Nephrotic range proteinuria – Urinary protein excretion greater than 50 mg/kg per day
●Hypoalbuminemia – Serum albumin concentration less than 3 g/dL (30 g/L)
- Giangiacomo J, Cleary TG, Cole BR, et al. Serum immunoglobulins in the nephrotic syndrome. A possible cause of minimal-change nephrotic syndrome. N Engl J Med 1975; 293:8.
- Spika JS, Halsey NA, Fish AJ, et al. Serum antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in children with nephrotic syndrome. Pediatrics 1982; 69:219.
- McLean RH, Forsgren A, Björkstén B, et al. Decreased serum factor B concentration associated with decreased opsonization of Escherichia coli in the idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Res 1977; 11:910.
- Anderson DC, York TL, Rose G, Smith CW. Assessment of serum factor B, serum opsonins, granulocyte chemotaxis, and infection in nephrotic syndrome of children. J Infect Dis 1979; 140:1.
- Ballow M, Kennedy TL 3rd, Gaudio KM, et al. Serum hemolytic factor D values in children with steroid-responsive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. J Pediatr 1982; 100:192.
- Alwadhi RK, Mathew JL, Rath B. Clinical profile of children with nephrotic syndrome not on glucorticoid therapy, but presenting with infection. J Paediatr Child Health 2004; 40:28.
- Krensky AM, Ingelfinger JR, Grupe WE. Peritonitis in childhood nephrotic syndrome: 1970-1980. Am J Dis Child 1982; 136:732.
- Uncu N, Bülbül M, Yildiz N, et al. Primary peritonitis in children with nephrotic syndrome: results of a 5-year multicenter study. Eur J Pediatr 2010; 169:73.
- Wilfert CM, Katz SL. Etiology of bacterial sepsis in nephrotic children 1963-1967. Pediatrics 1968; 42:840.
- Sleiman JN, D'Angelo A, Hammerschlag MR. Spontaneous Escherichia coli cellulitis in a child with nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007; 26:266.
- Gulati S, Kher V, Arora P, et al. Urinary tract infection in nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996; 15:237.
- Barness LA, Moll GH, Janeway CA. Nephrotic Syndrome. I. Natural History of the Disease. Pediatrics 1950; 5:486.
- LAWSON D, MONCRIEFF A, PAYNE WW. Forty years of nephrosis in childhood. Arch Dis Child 1960; 35:115.
- ARNEIL GC. 164 children with nephrosis. Lancet 1961; 2:1103.
- Minimal change nephrotic syndrome in children: deaths during the first 5 to 15 years' observation. Report of the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children. Pediatrics 1984; 73:497.
- Ulinski T, Leroy S, Dubrel M, et al. High serological response to pneumococcal vaccine in nephrotic children at disease onset on high-dose prednisone. Pediatr Nephrol 2008; 23:1107.
- Close GC, Houston IB. Fatal haemorrhagic chickenpox in a child on long-term steroids. Lancet 1981; 2:480.
- Scheinman JI, Stamler FW. Cyclophosphamide and fatal varicella. J Pediatr 1969; 74:117.
- Resnick J, Schanberger JE. Varicella reactivation in nephrotic syndrome treated with cyclophosphamide and adrenal corticosteroids. J Pediatr 1973; 83:451.
- Kerlin BA, Blatt NB, Fuh B, et al. Epidemiology and risk factors for thromboembolic complications of childhood nephrotic syndrome: a Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium (MWPNC) study. J Pediatr 2009; 155:105.
- Lilova MI, Velkovski IG, Topalov IB. Thromboembolic complications in children with nephrotic syndrome in Bulgaria (1974-1996). Pediatr Nephrol 2000; 15:74.
- Hoyer PF, Gonda S, Barthels M, et al. Thromboembolic complications in children with nephrotic syndrome. Risk and incidence. Acta Paediatr Scand 1986; 75:804.
- Zhang LJ, Zhang Z, Li SJ, et al. Pulmonary embolism and renal vein thrombosis in patients with nephrotic syndrome: prospective evaluation of prevalence and risk factors with CT. Radiology 2014; 273:897.
- Egli F, Elmiger P, Stalder G. [Thrombosis as a complication of nephrotic syndrome]. Helv Paediatr Acta 1973; 30:Suppl:20.
- Cameron JS. Coagulation and thromboembolic complications in the nephrotic syndrome. Adv Nephrol Necker Hosp 1984; 13:75.
- Sullivan MJ 3rd, Hough DR, Agodoa LC. Peripheral arterial thrombosis due to the nephrotic syndrome: the clinical spectrum. South Med J 1983; 76:1011.
- Appenzeller S, Zeller CB, Annichino-Bizzachi JM, et al. Cerebral venous thrombosis: influence of risk factors and imaging findings on prognosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2005; 107:371.
- Igarashi M, Roy S 3rd, Stapleton FB. Cerebrovascular complications in children with nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Neurol 1988; 4:362.
- Deshpande PV, Griffiths M. Pulmonary thrombosis in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 2005; 20:665.
- Apostol EL, Kher KK. Cavitating pulmonary infarction in nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 1994; 8:347.
- Jones CL, Hébert D. Pulmonary thrombo-embolism in the nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 1991; 5:56.
- Rai Mittal B, Singh S, Bhattacharya A, et al. Lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary thromboembolism in children with nephrotic syndrome. Clin Imaging 2005; 29:313.
- Nephrotic syndrome in children: prediction of histopathology from clinical and laboratory characteristics at time of diagnosis. A report of the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children. Kidney Int 1978; 13:159.
- Agarwal N, Phadke KD, Garg I, Alexander P. Acute renal failure in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18:1289.
- Vande Walle JG, Donckerwolcke RA, van Isselt JW, et al. Volume regulation in children with early relapse of minimal-change nephrosis with or without hypovolaemic symptoms. Lancet 1995; 346:148.
- Rheault MN, Zhang L, Selewski DT, et al. AKI in Children Hospitalized with Nephrotic Syndrome. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2015; 10:2110.
- Bohman SO, Jaremko G, Bohlin AB, Berg U. Foot process fusion and glomerular filtration rate in minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Int 1984; 25:696.
- Yamauchi H, Hopper J Jr. Hypovolemic shock and hypotension as a complication in the nephrotic syndrome. Report of ten cases. Ann Intern Med 1964; 60:242.
- Selewski DT, Chen A, Shatat IF, et al. Vitamin D in incident nephrotic syndrome: a Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium study. Pediatr Nephrol 2016; 31:465.