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Complications and screening in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

Lynne L Levitsky, MD
Madhusmita Misra, MD, MPH
Section Editor
Joseph I Wolfsdorf, MB, BCh
Deputy Editor
Alison G Hoppin, MD


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, is caused by insulin deficiency resulting from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. (See "Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus".)

In children and adolescents with T1DM, the most common complications include hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and psychiatric disorders. The pathogenesis of long-term vascular sequelae including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular disease begins in childhood, although clinical manifestations of these complications are uncommon before adulthood. Vascular complications and mortality during adulthood are discussed in a separate topic review. (See "Glycemic control and vascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus".)

The chronic complications of T1DM that occur in childhood will be presented here. Other issues related to the management of T1DM in children are discussed separately:

(See "Epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents".)

(See "Management of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents".)

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Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Sep 07, 2017.
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